Perry's Perennial Pages

Propagation Methods for Herbaceous Perennials--A

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I, J, K | L | M | N, O | P | R | S | T | U,V,W, X,Y,Z

The following table contains temperate and sub-tropical (to USDA zone 9) herbaceous genera and species. Some may be quite rare and only found on a continent or country such as Australia or South Africa. Due to variations in references, some may contain more than one comment or time period for a method.

Methods of Propagation:
S = seed LC = leaf cutting
SC = stem cutting L = layering
RC = root cutting TC = tissue culture or micropropagation
D = division

This table is an updated and expanded version of the printed version which can be found in the NRAES book by Dr. Leonard Perry, Herbaceous Perennial Production.  Appreciation is expressed to Andrea Luchini, graduate assistant, for most of this update.


Scientific Name

Common Name

Methods of Propagation

Time Period

Comments/Requirements

Abronia sp.

Sand Verbena

S

late spring

 

 

 

SC

spring

sand

Abutilon sp.

 

SC

spring or late summer

 

 

 

S

 

 

Acaena sp.

New Zealand Bur

SC

summer or fall

 

 

 

D

spring, fall

rooted stems

 

 

S

spring, fall

 

Acantholimon sp.

Prickly Thrift

S

 

slow, well-drained, transplants poorly

 

 

SC

late spring

 

 

 

SC

late summer

basal, non-flw

 

 

LC

 

most sp., most reliable

Acanthus sp.

Bear's Breech

RC

early winter

 

 

 

RC

spring

 

 

 

D

early spring, fall

use care

 

 

S

 

 

 

 

SC

fall

 

A. dioscorides

 

suckers

 

 

A. mollis

 

D

 

dormant divisions of crown

Aceriphyllum:  see Mukdenia

 

 

 

 

Achillea sp.

Yarrow

SC

 

summer softwood cutting with auxin

 

 

S

 

 

 

 

SC

mid summer

after flw, basal in spring

 

 

D

spring, fall

 

A. filipendulina

 

S

 

seeds sometimes produce inferior plants

Achimenes sp.

 

S

 

 

 

 

D

 

divide rhizomes

 

 

SC

 

commercial; early spring; mist w/bottom heat

 

 

LC

 

summer

Achlys triphylla

Vanilla Leaf

S

 

 

 

 

D

 

rhizome

Achnatherum: see Stipa

 

 

 

 

Acinos sp.

Calamintha

S

 

 

 

 

D

 

as Satureja

Aciphylla sp.

Colinso's Spainard

S

late summer

fresh

Aconitum sp.

Monkshood

S

 

difficult

 

 

S

 

fresh, doesn't tolerate storage, sow immediately after harvest

 

 

TC

 

 

 

 

D

 

do early as can be slow to re-establish

 

 

D

spring, fall

roots poisonous

A. vilmorinianum

 

S

 

use care, plant is poisonous

 

 

D

Fall

tuberous roots

Acorus sp.

Sweet Flag

SC

 

rhizome cuttings each with node

 

 

S

 

fresh

 

 

D

 

every 3rd/4th year

Actaea sp.

Baneberry, Cohosh

D

spring,fall

 

 

 

S

 

old seed germination un-uniform

Actinella: see Hymenoxys

 

 

 

 

Actinidia sp.

Yang-Tao

SC

late summer

bottom heat

 

 

L

fall

 

 

 

S

spring, fall

 

 

 

Graft

 

 

A. arguta

 

S

 

prefers fall sowing in mulch bed to artificial strat.

Actinomeris: seeVerbesina

 

 

 

 

Adamsia: see Pushkinia

 

 

 

 

Adelocaryum: see Lindelofia

 

 

 

 

Actinotus sp.

Flannel Flower

S

 

 

 

 

SC

spring

 

 

 

D

spring

 

Adenophora sp.

Ladybells

D

 

difficult

 

 

S

 

ripe, transplants poorly

 

 

SC

early spring

basal

Adenostyles (Cacalia) alpina

 

S

 

 

 

 

D

 

 

Adiantum sp.

Maidenhair Fern

S

 

spores, preferable

 

 

D

 

crowns, may be slow

A. aleuticum

 

D

 

divide in early spring by separating rhizomes with at least one leaf shoot or bud and transplant into containers

Adlumia fungosa

Climbing Fumitory

S

early spring

 

Adonis sp.

Pheasant's Eye

S

spring

slow to flower, doubles sterile

 

 

D

spring, fall

difficult, use care, keep moist

A. vernalis

 

S

 

see Aconitum

Adoxa moschatellina

Muskroot

S

 

 

 

 

D

 

 

Aegopodium sp.

Goutweed

D

fall, early spring

invasive

 

 

S

 

 

Aethionema sp.

Stone Cress

SC

 

tip cuttings

 

 

SC

summer

or basal

 

 

S

spring, fall

off types usual

 

 

D

spring, fall

difficult

Aethiopappus: see Centaurea

 

 

 

 

Agapanthus sp.

African Lily

TC

 

 

 

 

D

 

clumps, offsets

 

 

S

spring

ripe, 2-3 years to flw

Agastache sp.

Giant Hyssop

S

early spring

indoors

 

 

D

early spring

old clumps

 

 

SC

summer

semi-ripe or softwood

Agave sp.

Century Plant

TC

 

commercial mass production

 

 

S

 

slow

 

 

D

 

offsets, bulbils

Agrimonia sp.

Agrimony

RC

early fall

 

 

 

S

early spring

may self sow

A. striata

 

SC

early summer

 

 

 

D

fall

 

 

 

S

summer

need 1 month of cold

Agropyron sp.

Wheat Grass

S

 

 

 

 

D

 

 

Agrostemma: see Lychnis, Silene

 

 

 

 

Agrostis: see Stipa

 

 

 

 

Ajania sp.

 

S

 

 

Ajuga sp.

Bugleweed

 

 

most common by division; varigated from D or cuttings

 

 

D, TC, S

 

 

 

 

SC

 

when not flw, basal in spring

Albuca sp.

Hollyhock?

S

 

 

 

 

D

 

offsets, bulbils

Alcea (Althaea) sp.

 

SC

spring

special color forms, basal, not common

 

 

S

spring, fall

some species have poor germination and/or vigor

Alchemilla sp.

Lady's Mantle

S

fall

 

 

 

D

spring, fall

before flw, 2-3 yr to flw

A. mollis

 

S

 

 

Alisma sp.

Water Plaintain

D

spring

 

 

 

S

 

ripe, keep wet

Alkanna sp.

 

S, RC

 

 

Allium sp.

Ornamental Onion

TC

 

 

 

 

S

spring

 

 

 

D

spring

dormant offsets, clumps

Allosorus: see Cryptogamma

 

 

 

 

Aloe sp.

 

S

 

 

 

 

D

 

offshoots

 

 

SC

 

plants with long stems, allow cut surface to suberize

 

 

TC

 

 

Alonsoa sp.

Mask Flower

S

 

 

 

 

SC

late summer

softwood tips, non-flw shoots

Alopecurus sp.

Foxtail Grass

D

spring

 

Alsine: see Minuartia

 

 

 

 

Alstroemeria sp.

Peruvian Lily

TC

 

for disease free plants

 

 

S

spring

pot plants

 

 

S

 

sow ripe

 

 

D

spring

old clumps

Althaea sp.

Hollyhock

S

spring

 

 

 

D

 

rootstock, difficult

Alyssoides urticulata

Bladderpod

S

spring, fall

as Aurinia

 

 

SC

early summer

 

 

 

D

fall

difficult

Alyssum murale

Madwort

S

 

most common

 

 

D

spring

difficult

 

 

SC

early summer

or early spring before buds

Alyxia olivaeformis

Maile

S

 

need depulping

 

 

SC

 

single node, remove 1/2 leaf surface area, place in water before treatment; in shady cloth covered greenhouse; IBA quick dip

Amaracus: see Origanum

 

 

 

 

Amaryllis belladonna

Belladonna Lily

TC

 

 

 

 

bulb cuttings

 

 

 

 

D

 

dormant offsets

 

 

D

summer

clumps, after leaves gone

 

 

S

 

ripe

Amberboa moschata

Sweet Sultan

S

spring, fall

sow direct

Ammophila sp.

Beach Grass

S

 

 

 

 

D

late spring

not fall-spring

Amsonia sp.

Blue Star

S

spring

 

 

 

SC

spring, summer

after flw easy, terminal

 

 

D

spring, fall

3 year+ clumps

Anacyclus pyrethrum

Mt. Atlas Daisy

S

 

best

 

 

SC

spring

 

Anagallis sp.

Pimpernel

S

fall, spring

 

 

 

D

spring

 

 

 

SC

spring

 

Anaphalis sp.

Pearly Everlasting

D

spring

 

 

 

S

late summer

few off types

 

 

SC

spring

new shoots

Anchusa sp.

Alkanet, Bugloss

RC

late fall, early winter

 

 

 

S

 

not for cvs.

 

 

D

spring, fall

difficult

 

 

SC

spring

basal

A. azurea

 

RC

early spring

 

 

 

D, RC

 

clones

A. capensis

Bugloss

S

 

summer for next year bloom, winter in greenhouse

Andropogon sp.

Bluestem

D

spring

 

 

 

S

 

 

Androsace sp.

Rock Jasmine

S

 

slow, may take 2 yrs.

 

 

SC

summer

basal

 

 

D

summer

runners, rooted plantlets

A. villosa

 

D

spring

 

Andryala sp.

 

S, D

 

 

Anemone sp.

Windflower

RC

Oct.

 

 

 

RC

winter, early spring

autumn types, bottom heat

 

 

S

 

see Alcea; uncommon in US

 

 

D

spring

rhizomes, use care

A. blanda

Greek Windflower

S

 

 

 

 

D

 

divide tuber into sections

 

 

D

late spring

division of corms after leaves die

A. japonica

Japanese anemone

D

 

 

 

 

RC

 

dug in fall, cut into 2in pieces, put in flats or cold frame, covered with 1 in of soil; pot after shoots appear

A. x hybrida

 

S

 

needs temp. fluctuations

Anemonella sp.

 

S

 

sow fresh

A. thalictroides

Rue Anemone

RC

 

each piece with bud (crown)

 

 

S

 

sow outside

 

 

S

summer

 

 

 

D

fall

well-established

 

 

D

early spring

tubers from rootstocks

Anemonopsis sp.

 

S

 

sow fresh

A. macrophylla

False Anemone

S

late summer

 

 

 

D

spring

 

Anemopsis californica

Yerba Mansa

D

spring

 

 

 

S

 

ripe, wet mix

Anethum graveolens

Dill

S

 

 

Angelica sp.

 

S

 

ripe

 

 

D

 

difficult

Anigozanthus sp.

Kangaroo paw

S

 

 

 

 

RC

 

clumps; low rate of multiplication

 

 

TC

 

most effective

Anisodontea sp.

 

S

spring

 

 

 

SC

summer

greenwood or semi-ripe

Anisotome sp.

 

D

spring

 

 

 

S

 

as Angelica

Antennaria sp.

Everlasting, Pussy Toes

SC

 

 

 

 

S

spring

 

 

 

D

spring

stolons

Anthemis sp.

Dog Fennel, Golden Marguerite

S

 

 

 

 

SC

spring, summer

basal before budding, or after flw

 

 

D

spring, fall

 

Anthericum sp.

St. Bernard's Lily

S

spring

 

 

 

D

spring

flowers 2 years after

Anthoxanthum sp.

Vernal Grass

S

spring

transplants poorly

Anthriscus sylvestris

Cow Parsley

S

spring, summer

outdoors, bolts from dryness

Anthurium andraeanum

Anthurium

D

 

offshoots with attached roots

 

 

SC

 

terminal, root under mist

 

 

TC

 

vegatative bud explant

 

 

S

 

1.5-3 years for flowering, cultivars don't come true

Anthyllis sp.

 

S

 

 

 

 

D

spring, fall

 

 

 

SC

 

shrubby sp.

Antirrhinum sp.

Snapdragon

TC

 

 

 

 

S

fall, spring

easy

 

 

SC

fall

semi-ripe

Aphyllanthes monspeliensis

 

S

spring

sow ripe, sandy mix

 

 

D

 

 

Apios americana

Wild Bean

D

 

roots, tubers

 

 

S

 

 

Apium graveolens

Wild Celery

S

 

 

Apocynum sp.

Dogbane

D

spring

or remove suckers

 

 

S

 

 

Aponogeton sp.

 

D

spring

also offsets

 

 

S

 

keep moist, wet mix

Aposeris sp.

 

S

 

self-sows

Aquilegia sp.

Columbine

S

early fall

alpine sp. slow - 2 yrs

 

 

D

spring, fall

use care, difficult

Arabis sp.

Rockcress

S

spring, fall

not double cvs

 

 

SC

early summer

basal or tip after flw

 

 

D

spring, fall

 

Arachniodes sp.

 

S

 

spores, as Dryopteris

Aralia sp.

 

RC

fall

shrub sp.

 

 

S

 

ripe or stratify

 

 

Graft

 

variegated forms

A. nudicaulis

 

D

spring

rhizomes

Arctanthemum arcticum

 

S

early summer

often poor vigor

 

 

SC

summer

 

 

 

D

spring, fall

 

Arctotis sp.

African Daisy

S

spring

 

 

 

SC

fall

bottom heat, sandy mix

Arenaria sp.

Sandwort

S

spring

cushion sp.

 

 

D

 

cushion sp., after flw

 

 

SC

summer

larger sp., basal

Argyranthemum sp.

 

S

spring

 

 

 

SC

fall

 

Arisaema sp.

Jack-in-the-Pulpit

S

 

ripe

 

 

D

 

young offsets, tubers

Arisarum sp.

Mouse Plant

D

 

dormant

 

 

S

spring, fall

 

Aristolochia sp.

Birthwort

D

fall

 

 

 

S

fall

ripe, or stratify

 

 

RC

 

herbaceous sp.

 

 

SC

summer

climbing sp.

Armeria sp.

Thrift, Sea Pink

S

 

variable seedlings

 

 

D

spring, fall

or remove basal rosettes

 

 

SC

summer

 

Armoracia rusticana

Horseradish

S

 

not variegated cv

 

 

RC

 

taproot

Arnebia sp.

Arabian Primrose

RC

early winter

 

 

 

RC

late winter

bottom heat

 

 

D

 

use care, offsets

 

 

S

 

collect underripe

Arnica sp.

Mountain Tobacco

D

spring

 

A. montana

 

S

early spring

or ripe, acidic mix

Arrhenatherum bulbosum (elatius)

Oat Grass

D

 

 

Artemisia sp.

Wormwood

SC

spring, fall

 

 

 

SC

summer

remove from mist as roots, woody sp.

 

 

D

fall, early spring

 

A. absinthium

 

SC

fall

 

A. a. 'Lambrook Silver'

 

SC

spring

 

A. schmidtiana

 

SC

 

only, not division

Arthropodium sp.

 

S,D

 

 

Arum sp.

Wild Ginger

D

fall

after flw, also bulbils

 

 

S

 

slow, ripe, remove pulp (caustic)

Aruncus sp.

Goat's Beard

D

 

crown division while dormant

 

 

D

spring, fall

2-4 yrs, difficult

 

 

S

fall

true from seed, dioecious

Arundinaria: see Pleioblastus, Sasa et al.

 

 

 

Arundo donax

Giant Reed

D

spring

 

 

 

RC

winter

while dormant

Asarina sp.

Chickabiddy

S

early spring

self-sows

 

 

SC

late summer

tip, non-flw

Asarum sp.

Ginger

S

fall

self-sows

 

 

S

 

sow outside

 

 

D

spring, early fall

slow to increase, usual method

A. canadensis

 

S

 

sow fresh

Asclepias sp.

Milkweed

RC

early spring

3cm

 

 

S

 

transplant early, germ. variable

 

 

SC

summer

 

 

 

D

late spring

difficult, use care, taproot

A. curassavica

Bloodflower

S,SC

 

 

Asparagus sp.

 

SC

spring

of young side shoots of old plants

 

 

S

 

short-lived, ripe, not direct sow

 

 

D

 

clumps

Asparella: see Hystrix

 

 

 

 

Asperula sp.

Woodruff

D, S

 

 

 

 

SC

early summer

 

Asphodeline sp.

Jacob's Rod

S

 

sandy mix

 

 

D

spring

use care, several buds per, offsets

Asphodelus sp.

Asphodel

S

 

 

 

 

D

 

as Asphodeline

Aspidium: see Polystichum, et al.

 

 

 

 

Asplenium sp.

Spleenwort

S

fall

spores, lime soil

 

 

D

 

sidecrowns if present

 

 

SC

 

frond stipe

Aster sp.

Aster

SC

spring, early summer

from juvenile material (soft growth) best, easiest

 

 

D

early spring, fall

discard older parts, ensure shoot on division

 

 

S

 

fresh best

A. x frikartii

 

SC

spring

basal

A. frikartii 'Monch'

 

TC

 

commercial

A. amellus

 

SC

spring

basal

Asteriscus sp.

 

S

 

 

 

 

SC

 

semi-ripe

Asteromoea (Kalimeris) mongolica

 

S

 

 

 

 

D

spring, fall

as Boltonia

 

 

SC

late spring

before budding, soft best

Astilbe sp.

 

S

 

see Alcea

 

 

S

spring, fall

often slow to flw, variable except for Spirea A. chinensis pumila

 

 

D

early spring, fall

2-3 eyes per division

Astilboides tabularis

 

D

early spring

as Rodgersia

 

 

S

spring

 

Astragalus sp.

Milk Vetch

S

 

transplant early, may be slow

 

 

SC

 

non-flw basal with underground stem

 

 

SC

late summer

softwood, often difficult

Astrantia sp.

Masterwort

D

fall, early spring

difficult

 

 

S

 

ripe, variable seedlings

Asyneuma sp.

 

D

spring

as Phyteuma

 

 

S

fall

 

Athamanta sp.

 

S

 

transplant early

 

 

D

spring

use care

Athyrium sp.

Lady Ferns

S

 

spores

 

 

D

 

established crowns, bulbils if present

Atropa belladonna

Deadly Nightshade

S

 

ripe, fresh, slow, erratic

 

 

SC

spring

terminal shoots

 

 

RC

winter

toxic sap

Aubrieta sp.

Aubretia

S

early spring

self-sows, hybridizes

 

 

SC

early summer

basal early spring/after flw

 

 

D

spring

use care, difficult

Aureolaria virginica

False foxglove

S

 

sow fresh

Aurinia (Alyssum) saxatilis (saxatile)

Basket-of-Gold

S

summer

sow in summer for bloom following year

 

 

S

spring, fall

 

 

 

SC

early summer

 

 

 

D

fall

difficult

Avenastrum: see Avenula

 

 

 

 

Avenella: see Deschampsia

 

 

 

 

Avenula: see Helictotrichon

 

 

 

 

Azolla sp.

Mosquito Fern

D

 

budding off in ponds, invasive

Azorella sp.

 

D

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

 

SC

fall

rosettes

Azorina (Campanula) vidalii

 

S

 

 

 


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