Perry's Perennial Pages

Propagation Methods for Herbaceous Perennials--C

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I, J, K | L | M | N, O | P | R | S | T | U,V,W, X,Y,Z

The following table contains temperate and sub-tropical (to USDA zone 9) herbaceous genera and species. Some may be quite rare and only found on a continent or country such as Australia or South Africa. Due to variations in references, some may contain more than one comment or time period for a method.

Methods of Propagation:
S = seed LC = leaf cutting
SC = stem cutting L = layering
RC = root cutting TC = tissue culture or micropropagation
D = division

This table is an updated and expanded version of the printed version which can be found in the NRAES book by Dr. Leonard Perry, Herbaceous Perennial Production.  Appreciation is expressed to Andrea Luchini, graduate assistant, for most of this update.


Scientific Name

Common Name

Methods of Propagation

Time Period

Comments/Requirements

Cacalia: see Adenostyles

 

 

 

 

Caccinia sp.

 

D

fall, spring

difficult

 

 

RC

early winter

 

 

 

S

 

like Anchusa, transplant early

Cachyrs sp.

 

S

 

very slow

 

 

D

 

older plants

Caladium hybrids

 

SC

spring

at end of 4-5 month dormancy, just before planting; 2cm pieces of tuber with at least 2 buds

 

 

S

 

short-lived

 

 

TC

 

 

Calamagrostis sp.

Reed Grass

S

 

 

 

 

D

spring

 

Calamintha sp.

Calamint

SC

early summer

 

 

 

D

spring

 

 

 

S

spring

 

Calandrinia sp.

Rock Purslane

S

 

may self sow

Calanthe sp.

 

D

 

 

Calceolaria sp.

Slipper Flower/ Pocketbook Plant

SC

 

 

 

 

S, D

 

 

Calimeris: see Kalimeris

 

 

 

 

Calla palustris

Water Arum

D

fall, spring

 

 

 

D

spring

of long rhizome, difficult

 

 

S

late summer

difficult, keep wet

 

 

SC

summer

root in wet mud

Callendrinia: see Lewisia

 

 

 

 

Callianthemum sp.

 

S

 

sow fresh, difficult and slow

 

 

D

 

larger plants, difficult

Callirhoe sp.

Poppy Mallow

SC

spring

 

 

 

SC

summer

sandy mix

 

 

S

 

taproot, transplant early

 

 

D

 

 

Callitriche sp.

Water Starwort

D

 

 

 

 

SC

 

submerge in gravel

Calochortus sp.

Mariposa Lily

S

 

 

 

 

D

 

bulbils from branch axils

Caltha sp.

Marsh Marigold

D

spring

after flw

 

 

S

late summer

fresh, self-sows, ununiform

C. palustris

 

S

 

sow fresh

Calystegia sp.

Bindweed

RC

winter

rhizome pieces, invasive

 

 

S

spring

 

Camassia sp.

Quamash

S

 

also by bulbils

 

 

D

fall

clumps or offsets

Campanula sp.

Bellflower

S

 

see Alcea

 

 

SC

spring

before flw, basal

 

 

RC

 

 

 

 

D

spring, early fall

offshoots for alpine sp.

C. alliarifolia, altaica

 

S

 

sow fresh

C. isophylla

Falling Stars

S

 

 

 

 

SC

 

1,000 ppm IBA; keep stock plants under short days (keep vegetative)

C. persicifolia

Peach Bells

D

 

small offsets can be detached and rooted

Canna x generalis, cultivars

Canna Lily

D

fall through early spring

rhizome (keep as much stem tissue as can with each growing point)

 

 

TC

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

Cardamine sp.

Bittercress

S

 

 

 

 

D

 

also bulbils some sp.

C. pratensis

 

LC

 

 

Cardiocrinum sp.

 

S

 

7 yrs. to flower

 

 

D

 

daughter bulbs, 3 years to flower

C. giganteum

 

S

 

sow fresh

Carduncellus sp.

 

RC, S

 

 

 

 

D

 

lateral shoots

Carduus nutans

Plumless Thistle

S

 

self sows

 

 

D

 

 

Carex sp.

Sedge

D

spring

 

 

 

S

 

cold to germinate

C. exserta, rossii

Shorthair, Ross Sedge

D

 

plant divisions exactly at crown

Carlina sp.

Carline Thistle

RC

early winter

difficult

 

 

S

fall

ripe, not easily transplanted

Carpogymnia: see Gymnocarpium

 

 

 

 

Carum carvi

Caraway

S

early spring

or ripe, transplant early

Caryopteris sp.

Bluebeard

S

fall

species

 

 

SC

 

bottom heat, sandy mix

C. incana

 

S

 

sow fresh

Cassia: see Senna

 

 

 

 

Castilleja sp.

Indian Paintbrush

S

 

parasitic early with Raoulia

Catanache caerulea

Cupid's Dart

S

early spring

 

 

 

D

fall

may be difficult

 

 

RC

early winter

 

Cathcartia: see Meconopsis

 

 

 

 

Caulophyllum thalictroides

Blue Cohosh

S

 

ripe

 

 

D

fall, spring

or after flw

Cautleya sp.

 

D

spring

as Hedychium

 

 

S

 

sow fresh

Cedronella canariensis

Balm of Gilead

SC

fall

 

 

 

SC

 

softwood

 

 

S

spring

 

 

 

D

 

 

Celmisia sp.

 

SC

spring

 

 

 

S

 

ripe, poor germ, slow, hybridzies

 

 

D

early summer

 

Celsia: see Verbascum

 

 

 

 

Centaurea sp.

Knapweed

TC

 

C. macrocephala

 

 

RC

June

 

 

 

S

 

see Alcea

 

 

S

spring

 

 

 

D

spring, fall

 

 

 

SC

spring

woody cvs only

C. montana

 

RC

 

 

Centaurium sp.

Centaury

S

 

 

 

 

D

early spring

 

C. scilloides

 

SC

late summer

 

Centranthus ruber

Red Valerian

S

spring

usual

 

 

D

spring

use care, difficult

 

 

SC

spring

basal, before budding

Cephalaria sp.

 

S

summer

fresh, easy

 

 

D

spring

not for slow species

 

 

RC

late fall

 

Cerastium sp.

Mouse-Ear Chickweed

S

spring

 

 

 

SC

late spring, summer

after flw, bottom heat

 

 

D

spring, fall

 

Ceratophyllum sp.

Hornwort

SC

 

wet soil, invasive

 

 

D

 

as Myriophyllum

Ceratostigma sp.

Leadwort/Plumbago

SC

spring, summer

non-flw shoots best

 

 

D

spring

rooted suckers

 

 

S, RC, L

 

 

Cerinthe glabra

Honeywort

S

 

 

Ceterach: see Asplenium

 

 

 

 

Chaenorhinum sp.

Dwarf Snapdragon

S

spring

 

 

 

D

 

 

 

 

SC

spring, late summer

basal or soft

Chaerophyllum sp.

 

S

 

ripe or stratify

 

 

D

 

 

Chamaemelum nobile

Chamomile

S

 

 

 

 

D

 

cultivars

Chamaenerion: see Chamerion

 

 

 

 

Chamaepericlymenum: see Cornus

 

 

 

 

Chamaepeuce: see Ptilostemon

 

 

 

 

Chamerion sp.

 

S

spring

 

 

 

D

summer

rooted runners

 

 

SC

spring, fall

alpine sp.

Chartolepis: see Centaurea

 

 

 

 

Chasmanthium (Uniola) latifolium

Northern Sea Oats

D

spring

 

 

 

S

 

 

Cheilanthes sp.

Lip Fern

D

 

use care

 

 

S

 

spores, some sp. rare

Cheiranthus: see Erysimum

 

 

 

 

Chelidonium majus

Swallowwort

S

 

sow fresh, self sows

C.m.'Laciniatum Flore Pleno'

 

D

early spring

 

Chelone sp.

Shellflower

D

early spring, fall

 

 

 

SC

spring

soft tip before budding

 

 

S

spring

easy if cold period

Cherleria: see Minuartia

 

 

 

 

Chiastophyllum oppositifolium

 

D

spring, late summer

 

 

 

S

fall

 

 

 

SC

early summer

side shoots

Chimaphila sp.

Pipsissewa

D

 

use care, use native soil

Chimonobambusa sp.

Square Bamboo

D

 

 

Chionochloa sp.

Snow Grass

D

spring

 

 

 

S

 

 

Chionodoxa sp.

Glory of the Snow

S

 

sow fresh

 

 

D

 

of offset bulbs

C. lucilia

 

S

 

sow fresh

Chionohebe sp.

 

S

 

rarely available

 

 

SC

 

 

Chionophila jamesii

Snow-Lover

S

 

as Penstemon

x Chionoscilla allenii

 

S

 

sow fresh

 

 

D

 

of offset bulblets

Chlidanthus fragrans

Perfumed Fairy Lily

S

spring

5 years to flower

 

 

D

spring

offsets, 3 years to flower

Chloris sp.

Finger Grass

S

 

 

Chlorophytum comosum

Spider Plant

D

 

also plant mini plants from end of stolon (short days promote)

Chondrosum: see Bouteloua

 

 

 

 

Chrysanthemum: see Leucanthemum

 

 

 

 

Chrysanthemum

Chrysanthemum

SC

 

hormone may help; keep mother block away from producing area with long days and kept pathogen and virus free and true to type

 

 

TC

 

recover disease free plants; shoot-tip and petal segment explants

 

 

D

spring

 

Chrysogonum virginianum

Golden Knee

D

spring or fall

clump formers

 

 

S

 

ripe, collect as difficult to buy

 

 

L

summer

 

 

 

SC

 

avoid summer heat

Chrysoplenium sp.

Golden Saxifrage

S

fall

as Parnassia

 

 

D

spring

 

Chrysopogon gryllis

 

S

 

 

 

 

D

spring

 

Chrysopsis: see Heterotheca villosa

 

 

 

 

Chusquea sp.

 

S

 

easy

 

 

D

spring

difficult

 

 

L

summer

young culms

Cicerbita sp.

 

S

 

as Lactuca

Cichorium sp.

Chicory

RC

early winter

 

 

 

D

spring

 

 

 

S

spring, fall

 

Cicuta virosa

Water Hemlock

D

 

very toxic

Cimicifuga sp.

Bugbane

S

 

fresh best, transplant early

 

 

D

spring, fall

 

 

 

RC

 

 

Circaea sp.

Enchanter's Nightshade

S

 

 

Cirsium sp.

Plume Thistle

D

spring, fall

stoloniferous roots, invasive

 

 

S

 

invasive

Cladium sp.

 

D

 

as Carex

 

 

S

 

 

Claytonia sp.

Spring Beauty

D

spring

as offsets

 

 

S

 

 

Clematis sp.

Virgin's Bower

S

 

ripe best, not cvs

 

 

L

early summer

early spring - old wood

 

 

SC

late spring

herbaceous sp. difficult

 

 

D

 

herbaceous sp. difficult

 

 

TC

 

difficult sp.

C. armandii

 

SC

fall

 

C. columbiana

Columbia Virgin's Bower

SC

summer

softwood; hormone helps, place cutting in sand w/bottom heat

C. 'Paul Farges' ('Summer Snow')

 

L

 

 

 

 

SC

 

 

C. socialis

 

SC

 

use sand medium, auxin will help

C. viticella/vitalba

 

Graft

 

cleft

Clinopodium (Satureja)

Wild Basil

S

spring

 

 

 

D

 

 

C. douglasii (Satureja douglasii)

Yerba Buena

SC

spring

lay cuttings horizontal to ensure all internodes covered with media, bottom heat

Clintonia sp.

 

D

spring

 

 

 

S

 

ripe, remove pulp, slow

Clivia sp.

 

S, TC

 

 

 

 

D

 

after blooming

Cnicus benedictus

Blessed Thistle

S

 

self sows

 

 

D

 

 

Cobaea scandens

Cup and saucer vine

S

 

 

Cochlearia officinalis

Scurvy Grass

S

spring

 

 

 

D

 

 

Codonopsis sp.

Bonnet Bellflower

S

spring

 

 

 

SC

spring

basal shoots

 

 

D

 

use care, older plants

Colchicum sp.

Autumn Crocus

D

 

of corm offsets

 

 

D

summer

older clumps

 

 

TC

 

 

 

 

S

 

takes several years to reach flowering size; of spores, sow fresh

Collinsonia canadensis

Horse Balm

D

 

established dormant clumps

Colobanthus sp.

 

S

 

self seeds

 

 

D

 

of offsets

Colocasia sp.

Taro, Dasheen

D

 

suckers

 

 

RC

 

corm sections

Coluteocarpus vesicaria

 

S

 

as Iberis

 

 

D

spring, fall

 

 

 

SC

summer

after flw

Comarum: see Potentilla

 

 

 

 

Commelina sp.

Dayflower

D

spring, fall

those with running tuberous rootstock

 

 

S

 

 

 

 

SC

 

bottom heat, easy

Conandron ramondioides

 

D

spring

 

 

 

LC

 

 

 

 

S

 

only from hand pollination

Conradina sp.

 

SC

spring

new shoots

 

 

S

 

 

Convallaria sp.

Lily of the Valley

D

fall

stoloniferous sp., remove rhizome with attached underground bud (pip) and roots

 

 

S

 

ripe best

 

 

SC

 

subshrub sp., difficult

 

 

TC

 

 

Convolvulus sp.

Bindweed

S

spring

 

 

 

SC

summer

semi-ripe heel

 

 

D

spring

 

C. sabatius, C. cneorum

 

SC

spring

 

C. althaeoides

 

D

 

 

Coptis sp.

Goldenthread

S

 

sow fresh, dioecious

 

 

D

spring

difficult

Corallodiscus (Didissandra) sp.

 

S, SC

 

 

Corbularia: see Narcissus

 

 

 

 

Coreopsis sp.

Tickseed

S

 

see Alcea; common, uniform

 

 

SC

spring, fall

basal

 

 

D

spring, fall

 

Coris sp.

 

S

spring

 

Cornus canadensis, suecica

Bunchberry

S

 

sow fresh, slow

 

 

D

fall

rooted stems

 

 

SC

summer

mist

Coronaria: see Lychnis

 

 

 

 

Coronilla sp.

Crown Vetch

S

 

 

 

 

D

early spring

some sp.

Cortaderia sp.

Pampas Grass

D

late spring

clump

 

 

TC

 

from immature flower parts

 

 

S

 

short-lived, variable

Cortusa sp.

 

S

 

ripe

 

 

D

early spring, fall

 

 

 

RC

late summer

thick, mature roots

Corydalis sp.

 

S

 

sow fresh, often difficult

 

 

D

spring

or after flw

C. lutea, cheilanthifolia, oochroleuca, sempervirens

 

S

 

fresh best

C. solida, caucasica

 

D

end of summer

 

Corynephorus canescens

 

S

 

self sows

Cosmos atrosanguineus

Black Cosmos

D

spring

carefully, of fleshy tubers, each piece with eye

 

 

SC

spring

basal, as Dahlia

Cossonia: see Morisia

 

 

 

 

Cotula sp.

Brass Buttons

D

 

of roots

 

 

S

 

 

Cotyledon: see Rosularia

 

 

 

 

Crambe sp.

Sea Kale

RC

spring

4-6 inch, pencil thick

 

 

RC

early winter

 

 

 

S

spring, fall

sow fresh

 

 

D

spring

 

Craspedia sp.

Billy Buttons

SC

early spring

 

 

 

S

spring

sow fresh

 

 

D

spring

use care

Crassula sp.

 

LC

spring

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

 

D

 

 

 

 

SC

 

woody sp.

Cremanthodium sp.

 

S

 

sow fresh

Crepis sp.

Hawk's Beard

RC

early winter

 

 

 

SC

spring

 

 

 

S

 

short-lived plant

C. aurea, C. jacquinii

 

D

 

 

Crinum sp.

Spider Lily

TC

 

also bulb chipping

 

 

D

spring

of bulbil offsets

 

 

S

 

 

Crocosmia sp.

Montbretia

D

 

also corm offshoots

 

 

S

 

ripe best, loamy mix

Crocus sp.

Crocus

S

 

several years before flower; wild sp.

 

 

D

 

separate cormels or bulbils

 

 

TC

 

from corm fragments, isolated buds, flower parts

Crucianella: see Phuopsis

 

 

 

 

Cruciata (Galium) laevipes

 

S

late summer

fresh

 

 

SC

 

 

 

 

D

 

stoloniferous roots

Cryptogramma sp.

Rock Brake Fern

D

 

 

 

 

S

 

spores, acid mix

Currania: see Gymnocarpium

 

 

 

 

Curtonus: see Crocosmia

 

 

 

 

Cyananthus sp.

Trailing Bellflower

S

spring, fall

 

 

 

SC

summer

 

Cyclamen sp.

Persian Violet

S

summer

flower after 30 weeks, ripe best

 

 

D

 

of tuberous stem or cormels

 

 

SC

 

from stem crowns or short w/2-3 leaves; 10 sec dip of 3,000-5,000ppm K-IBA with mist, bottom heat, in perlite/vermiculite medium

 

 

TC

 

for F1 hybrids

Cyclobothra: see Calochortus

 

 

 

 

Cymbalaria sp.

Kenilworth Ivy

SC

 

 

 

 

S

 

self-sows, some sp. invasive

 

 

D

 

long-rooted stems

Cymbopogon sp.

Lemon Grass

D

spring

 

Cymophyllus fraseri

Fraser's Sedge

D

spring

as Carex

 

 

S

 

 

Cynara sp.

Cardoon, Artichoke

RC

early winter

 

 

 

RC

early spring

sandy mix

 

 

S

spring

 

 

 

D

summer

basal sprouts after flw

Cynoglossum sp.

Hound's Tongue

RC

early winter

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

 

SC

spring

basal

 

 

D

fall, spring

as Anchusa

Cyperus sp.

Umbrella Sedge

D

spring

 

 

 

S

spring

 

 

 

SC

 

of umbels, root in water

C. esculentus

 

D

 

tubers

Cypripedium sp.

Lady's Slipper Orchid

D

early spring

not endangered sp., difficult

 

 

S

 

use native soil

C. pubescens

Yellow Lady Slipper

D

Aug-Sept

division will kill other species

Cyrtomium sp.

Holly Fern

S

fall

spores, early, fast

Cystopteris sp.

Bladder Fern

D

spring

also bulbils

 

 

S

summer, fall

spores


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