Perry's Perennial Pages

Propagation Methods for Herbaceous Perennials--N,O

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The following table contains temperate and sub-tropical (to USDA zone 9) herbaceous genera and species. Some may be quite rare and only found on a continent or country such as Australia or South Africa. Due to variations in references, some may contain more than one comment or time period for a method.

Methods of Propagation:
S = seed LC = leaf cutting
SC = stem cutting L = layering
RC = root cutting TC = tissue culture or micropropagation
D = division

This table is an updated and expanded version of the printed version which can be found in the NRAES book by Dr. Leonard Perry, Herbaceous Perennial Production.  Appreciation is expressed to Andrea Luchini, graduate assistant, for most of this update.


Scientific Name

Common Name

Methods of Propagation

Time Period

Comments/Requirements

Narcissus sp.

Daffodil

TC

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

sow fresh

 

 

 

D

 

clumps

 

Nardus stricta

 

D

spring

acid soil

 

 

 

S

spring

 

 

Narthecium sp.

Bog Asphodel

D

spring

peaty, moist soil

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

Nasturtium sp.

Watercress

SC

spring

roots easily in water

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

Naumbergia: see Lysimachia

 

 

 

 

 

Nectaroscordum siculum

Sicilian Honey Garlic

S

early spring

 

 

 

 

D

 

offset bulblets

 

Nelumbo sp.

Lotus

TC

 

from excised embryos

 

 

 

S

 

flw 3rd year, keep wet

 

 

 

D

 

submerged in gravel, difficult

 

Neopaxia: see Claytonia

 

 

 

 

 

Nepenthes sp.

 

LC, SC, TC

 

 

 

Nepeta sp.

Catmint

SC

spring, summer

stem tip or softwood, easy

 

 

 

S

fall

 

 

 

 

D

spring, fall

 

 

Nerine sp.

 

TC

 

scales, lateral buds, young flower stalk

 

 

 

 

 

chipping, bulb scaling

 

 

 

S

 

some years before plants of flowering size

 

 

 

D

 

offset bulblets

 

Nierembergia sp.

Cupflower

SC

 

from new spring growth

 

 

 

SC

summer

heel, subshrub sp., sandy

 

 

 

S

spring

 

 

 

 

D

spring

rooted stems, creeping sp.

 

Nipponanthemum nipponicum

 

S

 

 

 

 

 

D

 

 

 

Nitella sp.

Stonewort

D

 

 

 

 

 

SC

 

submerge

 

Nitholaena: see Cheilanthes

 

 

 

 

 

Nomocharis sp.

 

S

spring

acid, moist, shade, epigeal

 

Nothoscrodum sp.

False Garlic

D

 

offset bulbs

 

 

 

S

 

may be invasive

 

Nuphar sp.

Cow Lily

D

 

rhizomes, invasive

 

Nymphaea sp.

Water Lily

S

 

sow submerged with pulp, not for hybrids

 

 

 

D

 

rhizomes, submerge pot

 

 

 

TC

 

epiphyllous plantlets as explants

 

Nymphoides sp.

Floating Heart

D

fall

stems with rooted nodes

 

 

 

D

spring

 

 

 

 

S

 

sow submerged, erratic

 

Oenanthe sp.

 

SC

 

stem tip

 

 

 

D

 

O. crocata toxic to livestock

 

 

 

L

 

often spontaneous

 

Oenothera sp.

Evening Primrose

D

fall, spring

crown, after flw

 

 

 

S

spring

 

 

 

 

RC

summer

 

 

 

 

SC

 

some sp. even root in flw

 

O. missouriensis

 

RC

 

of underground stems really

 

 

 

SC

spring

basal shoots

 

O. glaber

 

SC

summer

 

 

Olymposciadium: see Seseli

 

 

 

 

 

Omphalodes sp.

Navelwort

S

 

 

 

 

 

D

spring

use care, difficult

 

Omphalogramma sp.

 

S

 

related to Primula

 

 

 

D

spring

acid soil, moist

 

 

 

LC

 

 

 

Onobrychis sp.

Holy Clover

S

 

sow direct

 

Onoclea sensibilis

Sensitive Fern

S

 

spores

 

 

 

D

 

rhizome

 

 

 

RC

 

rhizome

 

Onois sp.

Rest Harrow

S

spring

sow direct or ripe in fall, taproot

 

 

 

SC

early summer

shrub sp., bottom heat

 

 

 

D

early spring

before growth

 

Onopordum sp.

Cotton Thistle

S

spring, fall

sow direct best

 

Onosma sp.

 

S

 

well-drained mix, high pH

 

 

 

SC

summer

some sp. irritate skin

 

Ophiopogon sp.

Mondo Grass

D

spring, fall

acid soil, like Liriope

 

 

 

TC

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

ripe, not for cvs

 

Ophrys sp.

 

S

 

sow direct, difficult

 

 

 

D

 

tuber, during flw

 

Opithandra primuloides

 

SC

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

Opuntia sp.

Prickly Pear

SC

 

 

 

 

 

D

 

joints, lay flat on soil

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

Orchis (Dactylorhiza sp.)

 

S

 

some sp. self sow

 

 

 

D

 

tubers, humus and acid soil

 

Oreobroma: see Lewisia

 

 

 

 

 

Oreopteris sp.

Mountain Fern

S

summer

spores, as Thelypteris

 

Oreostachys sp.

 

D

 

 

 

Origanum sp.

Marjoram, Oregano

S

spring

 

 

 

 

D

 

some sp.

 

 

 

SC

spring, summer

softwood

 

Ornithogalum sp.

Star of Bethlehem

TC

 

 

 

 

 

LC

 

emerging leaves, under mist

 

 

 

S

 

ripe

 

 

 

D

fall

offsets, bulbils

 

Orobanche sp.

Broomrape

S

 

parasitic, sow direct onto host roots

 

Orobus: see Lathyrus

 

 

 

 

 

Orontium aquaticum

Golden Club

S

summer

submerge, often self-sows, sow ripe

 

 

 

D

early summer

rhizome

 

Orostachys sp.

 

S

 

 

 

 

 

D

spring, summer

secondary rosettes

 

Orthilia secunda

 

D

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

use native soil, as Pyrola

 

Oryzopsis miliacea

Rice Grass

D

spring

 

 

 

 

S

spring

sow direct

 

Osmunda sp.

Flowering Fern

S

 

sow very fresh spores, cvs come true

 

 

 

D

 

massive rootstock

 

 

 

TC

 

 

 

Osteospermum sp.

Star of the Veldt

S

spring

most flower 1st year

 

 

 

SC

summer

heel, sandy mix

 

Ostrowskia magnifica

Giant Bellflower

S

 

slow, difficult, flw in 3 years

 

 

 

RC

 

thick, stick vertical

 

Othonna sp.

 

S

 

 

 

O. cheirfolia

 

SC

eary summer

softwood

 

Othonnopsis: see Othonna

 

 

 

 

 

Ourisia sp.

 

S

 

fresh, peat soil

 

 

 

D

spring

 

 

Oxalis sp.

Shamrock

TC

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

sow ripe, acid soil

 

 

 

D

 

also offsets

 

Oxygria digyna

Mountain Sorrel

S

 

self sows, acid soil

 

 

 

D

 

 

 

Oxyria digyna?

Mountain Sorrel

 

 

 

 

Ocypetalum: see Tweedia

 

 

 

 

 

Oxytropis sp.

Locoweed

S

early spring

sow direct, hard to transplant

 

 

 

D

 

may need appropriate Rhizobium

 

Ozothamnus sp.

 

SC

summer

semi-ripe

 


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