Perry's Perennial Pages

Propagation Methods for Herbaceous Perennials--P

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I, J, K | L | M | N, O | P | R | S | T | U,V,W, X,Y,Z

The following table contains temperate and sub-tropical (to USDA zone 9) herbaceous genera and species. Some may be quite rare and only found on a continent or country such as Australia or South Africa. Due to variations in references, some may contain more than one comment or time period for a method.

Methods of Propagation:
S = seed LC = leaf cutting
SC = stem cutting L = layering
RC = root cutting TC = tissue culture or micropropagation
D = division

This table is an updated and expanded version of the printed version which can be found in the NRAES book by Dr. Leonard Perry, Herbaceous Perennial Production.  Appreciation is expressed to Andrea Luchini, graduate assistant, for most of this update.


Scientific Name

Common Name

Methods of Propagation

Time Period

Comments/Requirements

Pachistima: see Paxistima

 

 

 

 

 

Pachysandra sp.

Spurge

D

 

 

 

 

 

SC

summer

branches or rhizomes

 

P. procumbens

 

S

 

 

 

Paederota sp.

 

S

 

as Veronica

 

 

 

D

 

use care

 

 

 

SC

 

 

 

Paeonia hybrids

Peony

S

 

difficult, 5-7 yrs to flower; 1-2 years to germinate; not true to type; can collect before black, don't let dry out, sow in pots which are then buried for 6-7 weeks, plant when roots have developed (in protected location)

 

 

 

S

fall

firm, ripe, 4-5 yrs to flw

 

 

 

TC

 

 

 

 

 

D

early fall

minimum 3 eye/buds per

 

 

 

G, L, RC

 

tree types

 

P. mollis, P. peregrina

 

RC

 

each piece with 1 eye

 

P. tenuifolia

 

RC

 

each piece with some crown

 

Pancratium sp.

 

D

 

offsets

 

 

 

S

 

ripe, as Hemerocallis

 

Panicum sp.

Panic Grass

D

spring

 

 

 

 

S

 

species

 

Papaver sp.

Poppy

RC

July

 

 

 

 

S

 

most sp.

 

 

 

D

late summer

after plants dormant

 

P. orientale

 

RC

late summer, winter

after flw, horizontal

 

Paradisea sp.

St. Bruno's Lily

D

early spring

or after flw

 

 

 

S

spring

 

 

Parahebe sp.

 

D

spring

 

 

 

 

S

 

hybridizes

 

 

 

SC

late summer

 

 

Parathelypteris: see Thelypteris

 

 

 

 

 

x Pardancanda sp.

 

S

 

 

 

Pardanthus: see Belamcanda

 

 

 

 

 

Paris sp.

 

D

 

rhizome, use care

 

 

 

S

fall

ripe, use native soil, slow, dioecious

 

Parnassia sp.

Grass of Parnassus

S

late fall

 

 

 

 

D

spring

 

 

Parochetus communis

Shamrock Pea

S

 

if fertile

 

 

 

RC

 

rooted runners

 

 

 

D

 

 

 

Paronychia sp.

Whitlowwort

D

spring

 

 

 

 

SC

 

bottom heat

 

Parrya (Phoenicaulis) sp.

 

S

spring, fall

sow fresh or stratify

 

 

 

D

spring

base cuttings

 

 

 

SC

summer

softwood, as Draba

 

Parthenium integrifolium

Parthenium

 

 

 

 

Passiflora sp.

Passion Flower

SC

 

heel or nodal

 

 

 

G

 

onto P. caerulea for more hardiness

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

Pastinaca sativa

Parsnip

S

late spring

fresh, slow, photodermititis from sap

 

Patrinia sp.

 

D

spring

easy

 

 

 

S

 

as Valeriana

 

Paxistima canbyi

Mountain Lover

SC

late summer

semi-ripe, bottom heat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pedicularis sp.

Lousewort

S

 

use native soil

 

 

 

D

spring

 

 

Pelargonium endlicherianum

Stork's Bill

SC

 

with bottom heat

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

Pellaea sp.

Cliff Brake Ferns

S

 

spores, as Adiantum

 

Peltandra sp.

Arrow Arum

D

spring

rhizomes or secondary shoots

 

 

 

S

 

moist loam, as Calla

 

Peltiphyllum: see Darmera

 

 

 

 

 

Peltoboykinia sp.

 

S

spring

not cvs

 

 

 

LC

fall

 

 

 

 

SC

 

 

 

 

 

D

spring, early fall

as Heuchera

 

Pennisetum sp.

Foxtail, Fountain Grass

D

spring

 

 

P. orientale

 

S

 

 

 

Penstemon sp.

Beardtongue

S

 

sp., growth uneven

 

 

 

D

spring

basal tufts, some sp.

 

 

 

SC

late summer, fall

semi-ripe

 

 

 

SC

spring, early summer

non-flw stems, softwood

 

 

 

TC

 

lateral buds as explants

 

Pentaglottis sempervirens

 

S

 

as Brunnera

 

Pepperomia sp.

 

SC, L bud, LC, D, TC

 

TC from excised leaf explants and petioles

 

Percidium: see Leibnitzia

 

 

 

 

 

Perezia sp.

 

SC, S, D

 

 

 

Perovskia sp. (Pervoskia?)

Russian Sage

SC

summer

excessive moisture may rot, or laterals with heel, rooting hormone if woody

 

 

 

S

 

species

 

 

 

D

 

uncommon

 

Persicaria (Polygonum, Tovara) sp.

Knotweed, Smartweed

S

 

 

 

 

 

RC

 

 

 

 

 

D

spring, fall

 

 

 

 

SC

late winter

climbers, nodal (2 buds)

 

 

 

SC

summer

soft tip

 

P. affine, P. amplexicaulis, P. virginiana

 

D

 

 

 

Petalostemon: see Dalea

 

 

 

 

 

Petasites sp.

Butterbur

RC

May-June

 

 

 

 

D

 

rhizomes

 

Petrocallis pyrenaica

 

S

 

lime soil, like Draba

 

 

 

SC

late summer

lower, lateral shoots

 

Petrocoptis sp.

Catchfly

S

early spring

lime soil, like Lychnis

 

 

 

D

 

 

 

Petrophytum sp.

Rock Spiraea

S

 

 

 

 

 

D

 

 

 

Petrorhagia sp.

 

S

early spring

species

 

 

 

SC

early summer

softwood, non-flw shoots

 

 

 

D

 

 

 

Petroselinum crispum

Parsley

S

 

may be slow

 

Peucedanum sp.

 

S

 

sow fresh, self sows

 

Phacelia sp.

Scorpion  Weed

S

spring

 

 

Phalaris sp.

Canary Grass

D

spring

 

 

Pharium: see Bessera

 

 

 

 

 

Phegopteris sp.

Beech Fern

D

 

usual method

 

 

 

S

summer

ripe spores

 

Phlomis sp.

 

SC

summer

shrubby sp.

 

 

 

SC

fall

semi-ripe, sandy mix

 

 

 

L

 

 

 

 

 

S

spring

 

 

P.  russeliana

Jerusalem Sage

D

 

crown

 

P. tuberosa

 

D

spring, fall

use care

 

Phlox sp.

Garden Phlox

TC

 

shoot explants

 

 

 

RC

fall

not P. divaricata, stolonifera; younger roots best; may not bloom

 

 

 

D

fall, spring

easy

 

 

 

SC

spring

before budding

 

 

 

S

early fall

select strains

 

Phlox stolonifera

Creeping Phlox

TC

 

 

 

 

 

SC

early summer

after flw

 

 

 

D

late summer

stems root readily

 

Phlox subulata

Moss Phlox

SC

summer

 

 

 

 

SC

late spring, fall

tips

 

 

 

D

spring

after flw

 

 

 

L

 

less common

 

P. douglasii

 

SC

summer

 

 

Phlox paniculata

 

SC,TC

 

 

 

 

 

D

fall

 

 

 

 

SC

spring

 

 

 

 

RC

early winter

 

 

P. divaricata

 

D

after flowering

 

 

 

 

SC

spring

 

 

Phoenicaulis cheiranthoides

 

S

 

as Draba

 

Phormium sp.

Flax Lily

D

 

well-drained soil

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

Phragmites australis

Common Reed

D

 

rhizome, very invasive

 

 

 

S

 

species

 

Phuopsis stylosa

 

L

 

remove rooted stems

 

 

 

S

fall

 

 

 

 

SC

 

semi-ripe

 

 

 

D

 

 

 

Phygelius sp.

 

S

spring

easy, self-sows

 

 

 

SC

spring, late summer

semi-ripe

 

 

 

D

 

 

 

Phyla sp.

Frogfruit

D, S

 

 

 

Phyllitis: see Asplenium

 

 

 

 

 

Phyllostachys sp.

Bamboo

D

spring

difficult, large divisions, mist often

 

Physalis sp.

Ground Cherry

S

 

 

 

 

 

D

early spring, fall

underground stems

 

Physoplexis comosa

 

S

 

difficult, like Phyteuma

 

Physotegia sp.

Obedient Plant

SC

early summer

basal-spring, stem

 

 

 

D

spring, fall

may be invasive, rhizomes

 

 

 

S

fall

 

 

Phyteuma sp.

Horned Rampion

D

spring

or after flw

 

 

 

S

fall

best sow direct

 

Phytolacca sp.

Pokeweed

S

spring, fall

 

 

 

 

D

spring

some sp. roots poisonous

 

 

 

SC

 

 

 

Pilosella sp.

 

S

 

 

 

 

 

D

 

 

 

Pimpinella sp.

 

S

spring

sow fresh

 

Pinellia sp.

 

S

 

as Arum

 

Pinguicula sp.

Butterwort

TC

 

 

 

 

 

LC

summer

lay on sand, keep warm & moist

 

 

 

S

 

may be difficult

 

 

 

D

spring, fall

winter buds at leaf bases

 

Piptatherum: see Oryzopsis

 

 

 

 

 

Pistia stratiotes

Water Lettuce

S

spring

keep wet

 

 

 

D

summer

plantlets

 

Plantago sp.

Plantain

S

 

 

 

 

 

D

 

 

 

Platanthera bifolia

 

S

 

like Orchis

 

 

 

D

 

tubers

 

Platycodon grandiflorus

Balloon Flower

S

spring

easiest

 

 

 

D

spring

may be difficult, woody roots

 

 

 

SC

summer

tip after flw, basal with attached root

 

Plectranthus sp.

 

SC

 

bottom heat

 

Pleioblastus sp.

 

D

 

easy

 

Pleione sp.

Indian Crocus

S

 

 

 

 

 

D

 

corm-like offset pseudobulblets

 

Plumbago sp.

Leadwort

SC

 

non-flw laterals with heel

 

P. auriculata

 

S

 

 

 

P. indica

 

RC

 

 

 

Poa sp.

Meadow Grass

D

spring

usual method most sp.

 

Podophyllum sp.

Mayapple, Mandrake

S

summer

fresh, ripe, or stratify; slow; sandy mis

 

 

 

RC

 

rhizome

 

 

 

D

spring, late summer

stolons root at nodes

 

Polemonium sp.

Jacob's Ladder

S

 

 

 

 

 

S

fall

species

 

 

 

D

spring, fall

clumps, cvs

 

Polianthes sp.

Tuberose

TC

 

 

 

 

 

D

 

rhizomes

 

Polygala sp.

Milkwort

S

spring

ripe

 

 

 

SC

late summer

bottom heat, semi-ripe or softwood

 

 

 

D

 

rooted shoots

 

Polygonatum sp.

Solomon's Seal

S

fall

stratify, overwinter, slow

 

 

 

D

spring, fall

rhizomes, leave at least one bud per

 

 

 

RC

 

may lie dormant one year

 

Polygonum: see Fallopia, Persicaria

 

 

 

 

 

Polypodium sp.

Polypody Fern

S

 

spores, not for cvs

 

 

 

D

 

 

 

Polystichum sp.

Holly Fern

S

summer

spores

 

 

 

D

late summer

bulbils, some sp.

 

 

 

D

spring

cvs

 

 

 

LC

 

gemma at frond tips of some cvs

 

Pontederia sp.

Pickerel Weed

D

spring

 

 

 

 

SC

summer

stolons

 

 

 

S

summer

green, submerge

 

Potamogeton sp.

Pondweed

SC

summer

or scaly resting buds

 

 

 

D

 

may invade streams

 

Potentilla sp.

Cinquefoil

S

fall, early spring

species only, some self sow

 

 

 

D

spring, fall

cvs, after flw

 

 

 

D

 

rooted runners, alpine sp.

 

 

 

SC

summer

shrubby sp., stem tip, for cvs

 

 

 

SC

spring, fall

rooted

 

Poterium: see Sanguisorba

 

 

 

 

 

Pratia sp.

 

D

 

rooted shoots

 

 

 

S

fall

sandy mix

 

Prenanthes purpurea

Rattlesnake Root

D

 

acidic soil, as Cicerbita

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

Primula sp.

Primrose

S

 

germination erratic

 

 

 

TC

 

 

 

 

 

SC

 

also leaf bud

 

 

 

D

summer

after flw

 

P. denticulata

 

RC

June

 

 

 

 

RC

 

while dormant

 

P. rosea

 

S

 

sow fresh

 

Pritzelago: see Hutchinsia

 

 

 

 

 

Prometheum: see Sedum

 

 

 

 

 

Prunella sp.

Heal All

S

 

 

 

 

 

D

late summer

remove rooted stems

 

 

 

SC

fall

 

 

Pseudofumaria: see Corydalis

 

 

 

 

 

Pseudolysimachion: see Veronica

 

 

 

 

 

Pseudomuscari: see Muscari

 

 

 

 

 

Pseudosasa sp.

Arrow Bamboo

D

 

 

 

Psilostemon: see Trachystemon

 

 

 

 

 

Pteridium aquilinum

Bracken Fern

D

 

hardy, invasive

 

 

 

S

 

spores, cvs true

 

Pteridophyllum racemosum

 

S

fall

slow

 

 

 

D

 

after flw

 

Pterocephalus sp.

 

S

 

 

 

 

 

SC

late summer

softwood or semi-ripe

 

Ptilostemon sp.

 

S

 

self sows, as Carduus

 

Ptilotrichum: see Alyssum

 

 

 

 

 

Pulmonaria sp.

Lungwort

S

 

hybridize, not true

 

 

 

D

spring, fall

after flw

 

 

 

TC

 

 

 

 

 

RC

winter

some cvs

 

 

 

SC

 

basal

 

P. longifolia

 

RC

Oct.

 

 

Pulsatilla sp.

Pasque Flower

RC

fall

 

 

 

 

S

 

most common, see Alcea

 

 

 

D

spring, fall

transplants poorly, slow

 

P. vulgaris

 

RC

 

some cvs.

 

Puschkinia scilloides

 

D

late summer

bulbils

 

 

 

S

fall

self sows

 

Pycnanthemym (Koellia) sp.

American Mountain Mint

D

 

invasive where warm

 

 

 

S

spring, fall

 

 

Pygmaea: see Chionohebe

 

 

 

 

 

Pyrethrum: see Tanacetum

 

 

 

 

 

Pyrola sp.

Wintergreen

D

 

use care, keep moist

 

 

 

S

 

in native soil, difficult

 

Pyrrocoma sp.

 

S

 

 

 

 

 

SC

 

semi-ripe, sandy mix

 

 

 

D

 

as Haplopappus

 


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