Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema) 

photo courtesy Wikimedia Commons, by Fanghong

(den-dran' thah-mah)(chri-san' thah-mum)

Common name:Garden Chrysanthemum

Family:Asteraceae, Aster

Height x width: 1-2' x 1-2' (to 3' x 3' in zones 6-9) depending on variety

Growth rate: moderate to fast

Foliage: alternate, deeply cut margins (pinnatifid)

Flowers: various forms (see below), most colors usually forced (se below) for fall bloom

Hardiness: zones 5-9, usually grown as an annual

Soil: well-drained

Light: sun

Pests and problems: leaf spots, stunt virus, spider mites, aphids, tarnished plant bug, foliar nematodes and leaf miner; many more in greenhouses including other viruses and thrips

Landscape habit, uses: massing, front of borders, containers

Other interest: name from Greek chrysos meaning gold and anthos meaning flowers refering to original flower color; dates back to 550 B.C. in China, later in Japan--both where used extensively over centuries; first in Chrysanthemum genus, then split by botanists into Dendranthema, now back into former genus

Other culture: although perennial in warmer climates listed, usually grown as a seasonal annual for fall bloom or small pots of color in spring; varieties here grown for outdoors with different ones for indoor pot and cut forcing; requires short days (long nights) to bloom with differences among varieties-- early fall blooming ones require shorter nights than those blooming later; pinch back to encourage branching and denser growth--no later than July 15 in zone 4, August 15 in zone 9; division every 3-4 years may be beneficial.

Propagation: 2-4" vegetative terminal cuttings in spring and summer, division in spring or fall

Species:

x morifolium (more-eh-fol' ee-um)--Fall/Garden/Hardy Chrysanthemum, plants are classified by flower shape with the following the most common for garden varieties:

Daisies--single daisy-like flowers with yellow centers, various heights

Decoratives--double or semi-double flowers, usually over 18" tall

Pompons--small ball-shaped flowers, usually under 18" tall

Buttons--small button-like flowers less than 1" across, usually under 18" tall

In addition, varieties may be classified by habit, such as upright or cushion (low, compact). Varieties may also have specially shaped florets, such as quill or spoon. An example might be a cushion, spoon-tipped daisy.Season refers to natural flowering time with early=early to mid September, mid=mid to late September, late=late September to early October, very late=early October to late October (often "Season Extenders" from France through Yoders).The Prophet series includes the best of the new varieties from Yoder since 1984.
 
 Cultivars:
 
Cultivars color season flower type
'Adorn' pink early daisy
'Aggie' pink early decorative
'Allure' yellow early daisy
'Anna' yellow early daisy Prophet
'Aspen' white early daisy
'Aurea' bronze very late daisy
'Autumn Denise' bronze very late decorative Prophet
'Autumn Kimberly' bronze very late daisy Prophet
'Baby Tears' white early button
'Bandit' bronze mid button
'Barbara' pink mid pompon Prophet
'Blushing Christine' coral mid decorative
'Blushing Emily' coral early decorative Prophet
'Bold Christine' coral mid decorative Prophet
'Bordeaux' pink early decorative
'Bravo' red early decorative Prophet
'Bright Tracy' yellow mid daisy Prophet
'Brown Eyes' bronze early button
'Bruin' yellow mid button
'Buccaneer' yellow mid button
'Buckeye' red mid daisy
'Cabernet' red mid decorative
'Cadet' yellow mid decorative
'Calypso' pink late decorative
'Cameo' pink early daisy
'Candice' white very late daisy
'Candice Creme' yellow very late daisy
'Chablis' white early decorative
'Cheery Emily' red early decorative
'Christine' coral mid decorative Prophet
'Citrine' yellow early spoon-tipped daisy
'Classic' yellow mid decorative
'Cloud-9' white mid decorative
'Compatriot' yellow early pompon
'Cornhusker' bronze early daisy
'Cougar' bronze mid decorative
'Cream Frolic' yellow early decorative
'Cream Nicole' yellow early decorative Prophet
'Crown Jewel' pink  mid daisy
'Crusader' pink mid daisy
'Dark Grenadine' bronze mid decorative Prophet
'Dark Triumph' bronze early decorative Prophet
'Debonair' pink early decorative Prophet
'Denise' bronze very late decorative Prophet
'Diablo' red late decorative
'Donna' yellow mid spoon-tipped daisy Prophet
'Dreamy Tracy' yellow mid daisy Prophet
'Elegant Cushion' pink late decorative
'Emily' pink early decorative Prophet
'Encore' white early decorative Prophet
'Felicia' pink early daisy Prophet
'Festive Cushion' bronze late decorative
'Fiery Barbara' bronze mid pompon Prophet
'Fireside Cushion' red late daisy
'Fort Knox' yellow early decorative
'Fortune' yellow mid decorative Prophet
'Foxy Valerie' red very late decorative Prophet
'Freedom' yellow late decorative
'Frolic' white mid decorative
'Gentle Kimberly' orange mid daisy Prophet
'Ginger' bronze early decorative Prophet
'Glowing Lynn' orange mid decorative Prophet
'Golden Grace' yellow mid daisy Prophet
'Goldmine' yellow mid pompon
'Goldstrike' yellow early pompon
'Goldtone' yellow mid decorative
'Grace' orange early daisy Prophet
'Grandchild' pink early decorative
'Grenadine' coral early decorative Prophet
'Harvest Emily' orange early decorative Prophet
'Hawkeye' yellow early daisy
'Heather' pink mid decorative Prophet
'Hekla' white early daisy
'Helen' red early decorative Prophet
'Holly' yellow early pompon
'Husky' white mid decorative
'Illusion' white early quilled daisy Prophet
'Ironsides' bronze early pompon
'Jackpot' yellow mid decorative
'Janice' yellow early decorative Prophet
'Jennifer' bronze early decorative Prophet
'Jessica' yellow early decorative Prophet
'Julia' yellow very late daisy Prophet
'Kimberly' pink very late daisy Prophet
'Lancer' pink early spider
'Laurie' bronze very late decorative Prophet
'Legend' yellow early pompon Prophet
'Linda' white mid decorative Prophet
'Lipstick' bronze mid decorative
'Lisa' yellow mid spoon-tipped decorative Prophet
'Lobo' white mid pompon
'Lynn' pink mid decorative Prophet
'Megan' pink mid daisy Prophet
'Minnautumn' bronze early decorative
'Minngopher' red early decorative
'Minnpink' pink late decorative
'Minnwhite' white early decorative
'Minnyellow' yellow early decorative
'Naomi' pink mid spoon-tipped daisy Prophet
'Nicole' white early decorative
'Orion' yellow very late quilled decorative
'Pancho' bronze early decorative
'Panther' yellow mid button
'Patriot' white early pompon
'Peachy Lynn' orange mid decorative Prophet
'Penquin' white mid button
'Pink Champagne' pink early decorative
'Powder River' white early decorative
'Purple Waters' purple early decorative
'Quaker' white early spoon-tipped daisy
'Radiant Lynn' coral mid decorative Prophet
'Raquel' red mid decorative Prophet
'Red Remarkable' red late decorative Prophet
'Remarkable' bronze late decorative
'Revere' bronze mid decorative
'Rhapsody' pink mid decorative Prophet
'Robin' bronze early pompon
'Rocket' pink mid daisy
'Roll Call' bronze early decorative
'Rose Serenade' coral early decorative
'Rosepink Debonair' pink early decorative Prophet
'Royal Lynn' pink mid decorative Prophet
'Ruby Mound' red early decorative
'Salsa' red mid daisy
'Sandy' bronze early daisy Prophet
'Sarah' bronze very late quilled decorative Prophet
'Scottsdale' bronze mid decorative
'Seminole' pink mid spoon-tipped daisy
'Serenade' coral early decorative
'Shelley' bronze early pompon Prophet
'Soft Lynn' pink early decorative Prophet
'Sophia' pink early decorative Prophet
'Spartan' white mid decorative
'Spotlight' white early decorative
'Stardom' pink early daisy
'Stargazer' pink mid daisy 
'Starlet' bronze mid spoon-tipped daisy
'Stephanie' white early daisy Prophet
'Stunning Lynn' coral mid decorative Prophet
'Sun Devil' yellow early pompon
'Sunburst Cushion' yellow early fuji
'Sundoro' pink mid decorative Prophet
'Sunny Denise' yellow very late decorative Prophet
'Sunny Linda' yellow mid decorative Prophet
'Sunny Morning' yellow mid decorative
'Supra' pink very late daisy
'Symphony' pink early decorative
'Tanaga' bronze late quilled daisy Prophet
'Target' yellow early decorative Prophet
'Tiger' bronze mid button
'Tinkerbell' pink mid decorative
'Tolima' white mid decorative Prophet
'Tracy' white mid daisy Prophet
'Triumph' bronze early decorative Prophet
'Valerie' pink very late decorative Prophet
'Vesta' yellow very late quilled decorative
'Viking' orange mid decorative
'Volunteer' white early daisy
'Warm Megan' orange mid daisy Prophet
'West Point' yellow mid button
'White Grandchild' white early pompon
'White Stardom' white early daisy
'Wildcat' pink mid decorative
'Wolverine' bronze mid spoon-tipped daisy
'Yellow Cloud-9' yellow mid decorative
'Yellow Ginger' yellow early decorative Prophet
'Yellow Illusion' yellow early quilled daisy Prophet
'Yellow Jacket' yellow late daisy
'Yellow Nicole' yellow early decorative Prophet
'Yellow Sandy' yellow mid daisy Prophet
'Yellow Sarah' yellow very late quilled decorative
'Yellow Starlet' yellow mid daisy
'Yellow Triumph' yellow early decorative Prophet
'Zest' bronze mid pompon
'Zesty Barbara' coral mid pompon Prophet
'Zonta' apricot early pompon


©Authored by Dr. Leonard Perry, Professor, University of Vermont as part of PSS123 course.

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