Viola pansy Majestic Giants

(vii-o' lah)

Common name: Pansy, Ladies Delight

Family: Violaceae, Violet

Height x width: 4-12" x 6-12"

Growth rate: slow to moderate

Foliage: basal rounded, cordate; stem ovate or lanceolate crenate-dentate; 1 1/2- 2" long

Flowers: irregular, usually 2 or 3 colors with "smiling face" pattern, 1-2" wide

Hardiness: annual, often self-sows

Soil: moist, fertile, well-drained

Light: sun to part shade

Pests and problems: crown rot, leaf spots, stem rot, slugs

Landscape habit, uses: massing, edging, containers; popular early spring annual in the north, fall annual in the south

Other interest: genus name from Latin for violet, common name from old French for "thought"; popular through centuries with lore attached; popular as cut flower in Victorian period

Other culture: cool-season annual, prefers cool temperatures for best bloom; remove old flowers for longest bloom; space 6-8" apart for small-flowered cultivars (2-2½" wide), 8-10" apart for medium-flowered (2½-3½" wide) and 10-12" apart for large-flowered (3½-4" wide)

Propagation: seed (20,000 seeds per ounce) sown 12 weeks before planting out, chill seeds at 40ºF one week before sowing, geminate at 65ºF, grow on at 50ºF

Species:

tricolor (tri' color)--Johnny Jump-Up, purple or blue and yellow in various patterns, flowers under 1" across and plants under 6" tall, self-sows readily

x williamsii (wil-lee-am-see' ii)--only one cultivar of note, new in 1997: 'Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow'-- 1 1/2" flowers open white turning blue then finishing dark blue, early uniform, heat tolerant

x wittrockiana (witt-rock-ee-aa' nah)--primary bedding species; flowers of one color refered to as "clear" and with bicolor pattern as "blotched"; generally if flowers under 2" across called viola (photo: cv. Rain Blue and Purple), and larger flowers called pansy

 Most species are perennial, at least to zones 6-8, with most perennial cultivars hybrids among species and classifield into 10 groups.
 
 Cultivars: (of x wittrockiana, colors available separately in series, each series usually has a mix; some mixes are selections from various series; table below refers to flower traits)
 
Cultivars pattern width colors, other
Accord series both 2½-3" 14 colors, sturdy, many blooms
'Antique Shades' blotched 3" apricot to rose mix, orange blotch
'Azure Blue' clear 2-2½" blue to light blue edges
'Baby Lucia' clear 1½" sky blue, 6" mound plant, cold tolerant
'Ball Giant Mix' both 3½-4" Swiss Giants and similar, not adaptable
Bingo series both 3½" flowers face up
'Black Devil' clear 2" black, RHS winner
'Blue Shades' clear 2½" lavenders, blues, yellow eyes
Blues Jam' both 2-3" blue shades and bicolors
'Brunig' blotched 2½" dark purple, yellow edge
'Clear Sky Primrose' clear 2½" yellow
'Color Festival' blotched 3½-4" like Swiss Giants, not heat tolerant
'Colossal Mix' blotched 3½-4" 14+ colors, syn. Super Majestic Giant Mix
Crown series clear 4" 9 colors
Crystal Bowl series clear 2½" 9 colors, early, many flowers, heat tolerant
'Delft' blotched 2½" blue and white, yellow eyes
Delta series both 3" 14 colors, early, low, compact, adaptable
'Fama See Me' blotched 2¾" purple edge and blotch with white between
'Floral Dance' clear 2½" 4 colors, cold tolerant
'Golden Champion' clear 2-3" golden yellow
Happy Face series blotched 2½" 6 colors
Imperial series both 3-3½" 13 colors, uniform, heat tolerant
'Joker Pokerface' blotched 2¼" orange, black blotch, purple edge, 6" tall
Joker series clear 2-3" bicolors, better in North
'Jolly Joker' blotched 2½-3" orange, purple bicolor,1990 AAS
'Lac de Zurich' clear 3" azure blue
'Love Duet' blotched 2½" mahogany blotches on creamy white
Majestic Giant series blotched 4" 7 colors, long bloom
'Masterpiece' clear 2½" blue, purple, bronze ruffled, not adaptable
Maxim series blotched 2½" 13 colors, heat tolerant
Melody series both 2-2½" 15 colors, dwarf, early
'Padparadja' clear 2" intense orange, named for orange sapphire
'Paper White' clear 3½" white, yellow eye, not adaptable
'Pastel Butterflies' blotched 3" pastel colors, ruffled wavy edges
'Pink Shades' blotched 2½" pink to white, pink blotches
'Queen of the Planets' blotched 3½" early, large dark blotches
'Rainbow Mix' blotched 2-2½" 5 colors, not heat tolerant
Rally series both 2" flowers face up
Regal series blotched 4" 4 colors, similar to Crowns
'Rhine Gold' blotched 2½" yellow, black blotch
'Rippling Waters' clear 2½" dark purple, edged white
Roc series both 2½-3½"  
'Rococo Mix' blotched 2¼" frilled edges, veining
'Romeo and Juliet Mix' blotched 2½" pastels, orange blotches, ruffled edges
Rose series blotched 3-4" reds, pinks
'Rosy Cheeks' blotched 2½" pink, rose and white mix
'Rosy Morn Shades' blotched 2½" yellow, rose, red combinations
'Royal Mix' both 3" from Crown and Regal series
'Silver Princess' blotched 3" light yellow, brick blotch
'Silver Wings' blotched 2½" purple lower, white upper
'Spanish Sun' clear 2½" tangerine orange
'Spring Magic Moonlight'  clear  2½" creamy lemon
Springtime series clear 2½" uniform, heat tolerant
'Super Chalon Giants' blotched 3" blotches with veins, wavy, ruffled
Swiss Giant series blotched 3½" 6 colors
'T&Ms Black Pansy' clear 2½" black, yellow eye
'T&M Spring Giants' both 3" bright colors, early
'True Blue' clear 3½" light blue shades, like Swiss Giants
'Ullswater Blue' blotched 2½" gentian blue, black blotch
'Ultima Mix' both 2½" mix of 26 varieties, 6" high and wide plants
'Ultima Silhouette Mix' both 2½" pastel mix, soft blotches, 6" high and wide
Universal series both 2½" 18 colors, early, multiflora, heat tolerant
'Velour Clear Blue' clear 2" blue, small 
'Vernale Cassis Shades' blotched 2½" purple, white variously bicolored
'Water Colors Mix' both 2-3" many colors
'Wink Purple and White' clear 2-2½" separate purple, white petals


©Authored by Dr. Leonard Perry, Professor, University of Vermont as part of PSS123 course.

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