Common name: Verbena, Vervain
Family: Verbenaceae, Vervain
Height x width: 8-12" x 18-36"
Growth rate: moderate to fast (some cultivars, once established)
Foliage: opposite, variously cut or lobed
Flowers: terminal heads of florets flat or convex to 2" wide; corymbs or panicles; corolla tube spreading at mouth with notched lobes; many colors and bicolors
Hardiness: annual (hardy in zone 9), some species hardy in zone 8
Soil: well-drained, tolerates dry
Pests and problems:damping-off of seedlings, bacterial wilt, botrytis blight, powdery mildew (especially on some hybrids), aphids, beetles, caterpillars, whiteflies (mainly indoors), spider mites, nematodes; although these may all occur, this genus is relatively pest-free
Landscape habit, uses: massing, groundcover, containers, rock gardens, hanging baskets, butterfly gardens
Other interest: native to tropical and subtropical America; genus name is derived from classical name for laurel and myrtle, common name is derived from Celtic words fer meaning to remove and faen meaning stone, refering to the supposed use of a species in treating bladder stones
Other culture: some species stop blooming in heat and drought, watering promotes return to flowering but cooler weather is required for best flowering; space 12-18" apart
Propagation: seed (prechill at 40ºF 7 days) sown 12 weeks before planting out, softwood cuttings later in the season
bonariensis (bo-nair-ee-en' siss)--Tall Verbena, 3-4' tall, hardy to zone 8, violet, often used as a cut flower or interplanted among lower annuals, or massed in back of a border; 115,000 seeds per ounce.
x hybrida (hi-bri'dah)(x hortensis)--Garden Verbena, most commonly seen group of cultivars, generally grouped by habit into spreading (8-10" x 12") or upright (8-16" x 8-10"), many cultivars very susceptible to powdery mildew; 10,000 seeds per ounce.
rigida (ri-gi-dah)--Rigid Verbena, erect 18-24" tall and as wide, hardy to zone 8, purple, dark green leaves, good drought tolerance .
tah)--Moss Verbena, 8-12" tall and
12-24" wide, hardy to zone 8 with some protection, purple, may reseed,
somewhat susceptible to powdery mildew; 25,000 seeds per ounce; 'Imagination'
is AAS winner.
(photo courtesy Wikimedia Commons, Forest and Kim Starr)
Several other species such as canadensis and hastata are perennial to zone 4.
|'Amour Light Pink'||pastel pink||upright||branching, compact|
|'Blue Lagoon'||blue||upright||mildew resistant|
|Novalis series||7 colors||upright||early, compact|
|'Peaches & Cream'||salmon, apricot||spreading|
|'Raspberry Crush'||red to pink||spreading|
|Romance series||7 colors||spreading||some eye colors|
|'Springtime Mix'||8 colors||spreading|
|'T&M Dwarf Jewels'||mix||spreading||early, dwarf|
|'Trinidad'||bright rose||upright||early, compact|
|Valentine series||3 colors||upright||white eyes, 3" wide flowers|
|'Vivacious Mix'||5 colors||upright||continual bloom|
Return to HGPO
course | PSS123 course