Common name: Daffodil, Narcissus, Jonquil
Family: Amaryllidaceae, Amaryllis
Height x width: 6-24" depending on cultivar x 3"
Growth rate: rapid
Bulbs: generally 1-2" across, tan, pointed, outer scales flaky,often for larger grades with several smaller bulbs attached ("double nose")
Foliage: varies with species; for trumpet daffodil basal, straplike ¾" wide to 15" long, glaucous green; narrower, shorter and darker green for smaller-flowered species
Flowers: outer ring of petals or perianth segments, generally perpendicular to flower stem and inner corona; inner corona either trumpet-like tube or short ring-like; various color combinations of yellows, pinks, white, pastel derivations, orange; early to mid spring
Hardiness: zones 4-8
Light: sun, tolerates part shade
Pests and problems: bulb rots, nematodes, bulb mites, slugs (all are generally not usual)
Landscape habit, uses: naturalizing, massing in borders, containers, forcing of some cultivars
Other interest: native to Europe and Mediterranean; daffodil and narcissus are used interchangeably although in commerce daffodil often refers to ones with large trumpets; jonquil actually refers to jonquilla species; name from the mythical Greek youth Narcissus who was turned into a flower by the Gods when he became totally entranced with his own reflection
Other culture: plant smaller bulbs 2-3" deep and 4" apart; larger trumpet type bulbs 6" deep and 6-12" apart
Propagation: offset bulblets from mother bulb after flowering and foliage dies
Of the 50 or so species, the following are the most common. Cultivars are complex hybrids of many other cultivars and species.
asturiensis (as-tur-ee-en' siss)--miniature to 5" tall, native to Portugal, cold hardy to zone 6, tiny golden blooms early
bulbocodium (bul-bo-co' dee-um)--Yellow Hoop Petticoat, cold hardy to zone 6, native to eastern Mediterranean, single horizontal flower to 12" high, pale to golden yellow.
cyclamineus (cii-cla-min' ee-us)--native to Pyrenees, cold hardy to zone 4, solitary drooping deep yellow flower to 12" high
jonquilla (john-quill' ah)--Jonquil, native to Spain and Portugal, cold hardy to zone 4, yellow flower with yellow cup to 15" high
x odorus (o-door' us)--Campernelle Jonquil, native to eastern Mediterranean, fragrant bright yellow flowers to 12" tall, cold hardy to zone 6.
papyraeus (pa-pyr-aa' cee-us)-- Paper White Narcissus, native to eastern Mediterranean, cold hardy to zone 8, white petals and white cup-shaped corona 12-18" high, not cold-requiring for bloom, commonly forced to bloom at Christmas
poeticus (po-e-ti-cuss')--Poet's of Pheasant's Eye Narcissus, native to So. and central Europe, cold hardy to zone 4, usually white petals with flat yellow corona with red margin, 12-18" high
pseudonarcissus (sue-do-nar-ciss' us)--native to Britain and France, under 12" tall, trumpet type
tazetta (ta-zet' tah)--Polyanthus or Bunch-flowered Narcissus, native to Mediterranean through Asia, cold hardy to zone 8, white petals with yellow cup-shaped corona 12-15" high.
triandrus (trii-an' druss)--Angel's Tears, native to western Europe, cold hardy to zone 4, white to bright yellow with cup-shaped corona, bell-shaped 1-6 flowers to 12" high, one of oldest species in cultivation.
Cultivars have been classified into 12 divisions by the RHS (Royal
Society). Within each division cultivars are designated by color
to a code system where W=white, G=green, Y=yellow, O=orange, P=pink,
Letters before a hyphen refer to the outer perianth petals, those
the hyphen refer to the corona color. There may be up to 3 colors for
corona, in order of eye zone, mid zone, and rim color. Thus for
3W-GYO means division 3, white petals, and the corona with green eye
yellow mid zone and orange rim.
1. Trumpet daffodils of garden origin, one flower per stem, corona is equal to or longer than petals, 14-18" tall with 5-6" tall miniatures.
2. Large-cupped daffodils of garden origin, one flower per stem, corona over a third the length of petals but not as long as, 14-18" tall.
3. Small-cupped daffodils of garden origin, one flower per stem, corona less than a third the length of the petals, 14-16" tall, bloom early.
4. Double daffodils of garden origin, one or more flowers per stem, double petals or corona or both, 14-18' tall.
5. Triandrus daffodils of garden origin, like species, usually 2 or more pendant flowers per stem, petals reflexed, 12-16" with 8' miniatures, bloom late spring.
6. Cyclamineus daffodils of garden origin, like species, one flower per stem, petals reflexed, flower at acute angle to stem with short stalk (pedicel), 6-12" tall with 1-8" tall miniatures, popular for forcing early in pots.
7. Jonquilla daffodils of garden origin, like species, 1-3 flowers on a rounded stem in cross-section, narrow dark-green leaves, petals not reflexed, fragrant, 12-16" tall, bloom mid to late spring.
8. Tazetta daffodils of garden origin, like species, 3-20 flowers on a stout stem, broad leaves, petals not reflexed, strong fragrance, 18" tall, hybrids with jonquilla hardy to zone 5.
9. Poeticus daffodils of garden origin, like species, one flower per stem, petals white, corona usually disk shaped and green or yellow with red rim, 16-18" tall, fragrant.
10. Species, wild variants, hybrids including doubles
11. Split-corona (butterfly) daffodils of garden origin, corona split not lobed and for over half its length, quite variable group.
12. Miscellaneous daffodils including those not in any of
|'Actaea'||9||white||yellow||18"||green eye, red edge|
|'April Tears'||5||yellow||yellow||8"||2-3 per stem|
|'Baby Moon'||7||yellow||lemon yellow||7"||several blooms per stem|
|'Cassata'||11||white||lemon yellow||14"||wide spreading cup|
|'Dolly Mollinger'||11||white||orange-red||16"||ruffled cup|
|'Dutch Master'||1||gold||gold||15"||improved King Alfred|
|'February Gold'||6||gold||gold||10"||early, long trumpet|
|'February Silver'||6||white||white||10"||early, long trumpet|
|'Flower Record'||3||white||yellow||16"||orange rim on cup|
|'Grand Soleil d'Or'||8||yellow||orange||12"||fragrant|
|'Hawera'||5||yellow||lemon yellow||8"||4-6 pendulous per stem|
|'Ice Follies'||2||white||lemon yellow||14"||cup turns white|
|'Ice Wings'||5||white||white||12"||reflexed petals, long cup|
|'Jack Snipe'||6||white||lemon yellow||10"||vigorous, naturalizes well|
|'King Alfred'||1||yellow||yellow||16"||century old|
|'Liberty Bells'||5||yellow||lemon yellow||15"||similar to Hawera|
|'Mary Copeland'||4||white||white||16"||double, orange among|
|'Mount Hood'||1||white||white||16"||large flowers|
|'Peaches and Creme'||1||white||pink||16"|
|'Peeping Tom'||6||gold||gold||12"||reflexed petals, long trumpet|
|'Silver Chimes'||8||white||yellow||12"||late bloom, silvery white|
|'Sir Winston Churchill'||4||white||yellow||16"||double|
|'Tête à Tête'||6||gold||gold||8"||2 flowers per stem|
|'Thalia'||5||white||white||14"||3-5 per stem, fragrant|
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