Dendranthema x grandiflorum 

(den-dran' the-mah gran-di-floor' um)

Common name: Florist's Chrysanthemum

Family: Asteraceae, Aster

Flowers: daisy type flowers 2-4" or more across, varies as noted below in shape; yellows, oranges, reds, purple, white

Harvest: when flowers are fairly open for local markets, tighter for shipping; graded according to SAF (Society of American Florists) standards by flower diameter and stem length; packed in bunches of dozens

Foliage: alternate, entire to slightly toothed or crenate

Growth habit, uses: cut

Other interest: named from the Greek chrysos meaning goldand anthos meaning flower, refering to the traditional yellow or gold flower color; probably originally from China over 2000 years ago; second most popular cut flower after carnations (both don't match the value of roses); formerly Chrysanthemum morifolium;

Production: cuttings planted in benches or ground beds in many media; heavy fertility of 200ppm N needed and heavy watering; higher light yields best quality; spacing varies with culture and type and season: 4x6" sprays, 5x6" standards for single stems; 7x8 or 8x8" for pinched; bloom naturally mid August to mid April, otherwise need over 9 hours of dark (short days under 15 hours) to bloom; interrupted night lighting can keep vegetative, only 2 ft-c needed but generally 10 ft-c minimum used at darkest part of bed; excessive temperatures at bud formation causes "blindness" or no flowers, susceptibility varies with cultivar

Propagation: cuttings often virus-free from tissue cultured stock

Cultivars:

Many cultivars exist and are classified three ways.

I. The National Chrysanthemum Society has classified them based on flower type (see outdoor mum section elsewhere). Of these 4 groups, the decoratives are most imporant cut. Large-flowered or "standards" in the decoratives are usually grown as "disbuds" with sidebuds removed to allow a larger terminal flower.

These standards are further divided into:

A. Tubular ray flowers

1. spider types--long, tubular, drooping ray flowers

2. fuji types--like the spiders only shorter and flatter rays

3. quill types--tubular rays resembling quills

4. spoon types--quill types opening to spoon shape on end

B. Incurved flowers--glove shaped with rays curving inward, the traditional "pom pom" type

C. Reflexed flowers--egg-shaped heads, rays overlap and curve downward

D. Miscellaneous--exotic types little seen commercially

II. Commercial classification

1. single stem--one terminal flower, disbudded

2. spray-- allowing all flowers to develop, includes all 4 flower groups

III. Response group--number of weeks from beginning of short days to flower, 7-14 week groups at week intervals, longest intervals are used in winter

Most new cultivars over years in U.S. are from Yoder Brothers, PO Box 230, Barberton, OH 44203.


©Authored by Dr. Leonard Perry, Professor, University of Vermont as part of PSS121, Indoor Plants.

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