Dendranthema x grandiflorum 

(den-dran' the-mah gran-di-floor' um)

Common name: Florist's Chrysanthemum

Family: Asteraceae, Aster

Flowers: daisy type flowers 2-4" or more across, varies as noted below in shape; yellows, oranges, reds, purple, white

Harvest: when flowers are fairly open for local markets, tighter for shipping; graded according to SAF (Society of American Florists) standards by flower diameter and stem length; packed in bunches of dozens

Foliage: alternate, entire to slightly toothed or crenate

Growth habit, uses: cut

Other interest: named from the Greek chrysos meaning goldand anthos meaning flower, refering to the traditional yellow or gold flower color; probably originally from China over 2000 years ago; second most popular cut flower after carnations (both don't match the value of roses); formerly Chrysanthemum morifolium;

Production: cuttings planted in benches or ground beds in many media; heavy fertility of 200ppm N needed and heavy watering; higher light yields best quality; spacing varies with culture and type and season: 4x6" sprays, 5x6" standards for single stems; 7x8 or 8x8" for pinched; bloom naturally mid August to mid April, otherwise need over 9 hours of dark (short days under 15 hours) to bloom; interrupted night lighting can keep vegetative, only 2 ft-c needed but generally 10 ft-c minimum used at darkest part of bed; excessive temperatures at bud formation causes "blindness" or no flowers, susceptibility varies with cultivar

Propagation: cuttings often virus-free from tissue cultured stock


Many cultivars exist and are classified three ways.

I. The National Chrysanthemum Society has classified them based on flower type (see outdoor mum section elsewhere). Of these 4 groups, the decoratives are most imporant cut. Large-flowered or "standards" in the decoratives are usually grown as "disbuds" with sidebuds removed to allow a larger terminal flower.

These standards are further divided into:

A. Tubular ray flowers

1. spider types--long, tubular, drooping ray flowers

2. fuji types--like the spiders only shorter and flatter rays

3. quill types--tubular rays resembling quills

4. spoon types--quill types opening to spoon shape on end

B. Incurved flowers--glove shaped with rays curving inward, the traditional "pom pom" type

C. Reflexed flowers--egg-shaped heads, rays overlap and curve downward

D. Miscellaneous--exotic types little seen commercially

II. Commercial classification

1. single stem--one terminal flower, disbudded

2. spray-- allowing all flowers to develop, includes all 4 flower groups

III. Response group--number of weeks from beginning of short days to flower, 7-14 week groups at week intervals, longest intervals are used in winter

Most new cultivars over years in U.S. are from Yoder Brothers, PO Box 230, Barberton, OH 44203.

©Authored by Dr. Leonard Perry, Professor, University of Vermont as part of PSS121, Indoor Plants.

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