(cle-ma' tiss)

Common name: Clematis

Family: Ranunculaceae, Buttercup

Height x width: 2-3' x 6'-25'

Growth rate, habit: moderate to fast; vine

Foliage: opposite or sometimes alternate, one to three leaflets

Flowers: most colors and bicolors, 2-6" across, 4-8 sepals, no petals, many hybrids rebloom in fall

Hardiness: zones 3-5 to 7-8

Soil: prefer moist, cool out of direct sun, well-drained

Light: sun to part shade

Pests and problems: leaf spot, stem rot, beetles, clematis borer, mites, whiteflies, scales

Landscape habit, uses: vine on trellis, fence, over shrubs, elsewhere

Other interest: vines climb by leaf stalks (petioles) twisting around supports

Other culture: prune new plants back to above vigorous leaf axil buds first year to promote basal growth, pruning subsequent years varies with species and variety (see below groupings)

Propagation: softwood cuttings, layering


heracleifolia (hair-ah-clee-ah-fol' ee-ah)--Tube Clematis, zones 3-7, 2-3' x 3', fragrant blue flowers in late summer, vigorous shrubby non-climbing habit

integrifolia (in-teh-gri-fol' ee-ah)--Solitary Clematis, zones 3-7, 2-5' tall, violet to medium blue or white flowers 1" or less across and downturned or nodding, late summer bloom before heracleifolia, one of best non-vining species

maximowicziana (paniculata)(max-i-mo-wick-zee-aa' nah)--Sweet Autumn Clematis, zones 3-8, hundreds of fragrant, creamy-white flowers to 1" across in late summer and early fall, may be partially evergreen in south, cut back in spring, one of easiest to grow

montana (mon-tan' ah)--zones 5-8, 15-20' tall, single or semidouble 2-3" flowers white to pink in early summer, many blooms on previous year's growth so prune after flowering, easy to grow

recta (rec' tah)--Ground Clematis, zones 3-7, 4-5' tall, hundreds of fragrant white flowers to 1" across in summer followed by silvery seedheads, partially climbing to sprawling yet attractive

viticella (vit-ah-chel' ah)--15-20' tall (cultivars 10-15'), purple to red flowers 3-4" across most of summer, vigorous, less susceptible to clematis wilt


Of the eleven flowering groupings of hybrids, based on main parentage, the following are the most common:

Florida Group--flower late spring on last year's growth so prune after flowering, mostly semi-double to double flowers

Jackman Group--flower late summer on current year's growth

Lanuginosa Group--flower on last season's growth in early summer, or if cut back in spring flower more vigorously on current season's growth, may produce double flowers on old growth and single flowers on new growth

Patens Group--flower on previous year's growth so cut back heavily after bloom

Viticella Group--flower much of summer on current year's growth
Cultivars, other taxa Group, species flowers other
'Barbara Jackman' Patens Group blue/carmine bicolor 6-8" flowers, early
'Bees Jubilee' Patens Group    
'Belle of Woking' Florida Group mauve-blue, double early summer
'Candida' Lanuginosa Group  pure white 7-9" flowers
'Dr. Ruppel' Patens Group white, red center 7-8" flowers, ruffle edge
'Duchess of Edinburgh' Florida Group white, yellow stamens semi- to double, early
'Elizabeth' montana soft pink vanilla scent
'Elsa Spath' Lanuginosa Group  lavender-blue 6-8" flowers seem double, 
'Ernst Markham' Viticella Group red, gold stamens 4-6" flowers, summer
'Etiole Violette' Viticella Group deep purple, starlike  
f. grandiflora montana pure white vanilla scent
'Gipsy Queen' Jackman Group rich purple, red stamens 6" flowers, summer
'Hagley Hybrid' Jackman Group pink, brown anthers 5-6" flowers, summer
'Henryi' Lanuginosa Group  pure white, dark stamens 4-7" flowers, summer
'Horn of Plenty' Lanuginosa Group  light blue, darker highlights summer
'Huldine' Viticella Group iridescent white 4" flowers, summer
'Jackmanii' -- vivid purple 5-6" flowers, summer
'Kermesina' Viticella Group crimson, small  
'King Edward VII' Lanuginosa Group  lilac, pink centers 5-6" flowers, late
'Lady Betty Balfour' Viticella Group violet, creamy stamens 5-6" flowers, summer
'Lasurstern' Patens Group blue, creamy stamens 7-9" flowers, early
'Lincoln Star' Patens Group raspberry red, white edges  8" flowers, early
'Marjorie' montana creamy pink single or semidouble
'Mme. Baron Veillard' Jackman Group lilac-pink 6" flowers, summer
'Mme. Edouard Andre' Jackman Group velvet red, yellow stamens  5-6" flowers, early
'Mme. Julia Correvon' Viticella Group rosy red 3-4" blooms
'Nelly Moser' Lanuginosa Group  pink 5-6" flowers, summer
'Purpurea Plena Elegans' viticella rose-purple, double showy, late bloom
'Ramona' Lanuginosa Group  blue, dark anthers 6-8" flowers, summer
var. rubens montana pink, varied scent, purplish foliage
'Ville de Lyon' Viticella Group carmine, cream stamens 4" flowers, summer
'William Kennett' Lanuginosa Group  lavender-blue ruffled 6-8" flowers, summer

('Jackmanii' photo courtesy Missouri Botanical Garden plantfinder)

©Authored by Dr. Leonard Perry, Professor, University of Vermont as part of PSS123 course.

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