Echinacea 

(eh-kin-aa' cee-ah)

Common name: Purple Coneflower

Family: Asteraceae, Aster

Height x width, habit: 2-4' x 2', upright

Growth rate: moderate to fast

Foliage: dark green, alternate, simple, often clasp the stem

Flowers: purple to white or other newer, slightly reflexed petals surrounding generally brownish cone

Hardiness: zones 3-4 to 8

Soil: most

Light: sun

Pests and problems: fungal leaf spots, virus, mites, aphids, thrips

Landscape habit, uses: borders, native meadows, butterfly gardens

Other interest:  very attractive to butterflies, genus name from prickly lower stem resembling a hedgehog (Latin echinos), popular for medicinal use from vitamin C supplement to colds to other attributed uses, good cut or dried flower (cone); much selection and new cultivars in recent years

Other culture: readily self sows

Propagation: seed, division unless newer patented (PPAF) cultivar

Species:

angustifolia (an-gus-ti-fol' ee-ah)--Narrow-leaf Purple Coneflower, zones 3-8, 1-3' x 2', western native similar to eastern purpurea

pallida (pal-i-dah')--Pale Coneflower, zones 4-8, 3-4' x 2', pale purple flowers in summer, native to central U.S. was used by Indians for bites, stings and burns

paradoxa (pair-a-dox' ah)--Yellow Coneflower, zones 4-7, 2-3' x 2', pale yellow flowers in summer, native to Ozark mountains

purpurea (pur-pur-ee' ah)--Purple Coneflower, zones 3-8, 2-3' x 2', purple flowers in summer, native to central U.S.
 

Cultivars: (of purpurea unless noted, more recent or common)
 

Cultivars, other taxa flowers other
'Bright Star' rose-pink from seed, variable
'Doppelganger' red-pink "hose in hose" type flower with 2-tiered effect, orange-black cone
'Fragrant Angel' white form of 'Ruby Giant', fragrant like sweet phlox, PPAF
'Indiaca' bright pink short 20", appears semi-double
'Kim's Knee High' pink-purple orange cones, 20", may rebloom higher, selected by Kim Hawkes of Niche Gardens, PPAF
'Kim's Mophead' white sport of above, selected by Pierre Bennerup of Sunny Border Nurseries, 15", PPAF
'Little Giant' pink-red to 5" wide, double, fragrant, dark orange centers, long bloom, 12" high, PPAF
'Magnus' rose larger petals, PPA Plant of Year 1998
'Mango Meadowbrite' org-yellow second E. introduction from Jim Ault, sport of Org. Meadowbrite, PPAF
'Orange Meadowbrite' orange first orange coneflower, from Chicago Botanic Garden breeding of Jim Ault, also seen as 'Art's Pride', fragrant, PPAF
'Paranoia' yellow introduction by Avent and Saul, paradoxa x purpurea, dwarf 12" wide and tall, sterile, PPAF
'Prairie Frost' rose-pink, wide petals first variegated coneflower (margins white), released in 2003 by Terra Nova, originally from Alan Costa of Plant Designs as selected in 1996 from 'Bravado' seed strain, tapering leaves, PPAF
'Razzmatazz' pink central pom-pom of petals covers cone, resembles peony
Rocky Top hybrids pinks seed strain from Jelitto of endangered species tennesseensis in wild, thin ray florets, flowers follow sun
'Ruby Giant' pink-purple large flowers to 7" wide, flat not drooping, 3-4' tall
'Rubinstern' dark red long bloom, 2-3' tall
'Sunrise' yellow from the Saul's Big sky series
'Sunset' red-orange from the Saul's Big sky series
'Tiki Torch' deep orange from Terra Nova
'White Swan' white yellow cone center, from seed
     

Less common or older cultivars: (of purpurea unless noted)
Cultivars, other taxa flowers other
'Abendsonne' cerise-pink  
'Alba' creamy white greenish disc
Bressingham Hybrids rose, red from seed, from 'Robert Bloom'
'Bravado' rosy red, 4-5"  
'Crimson Star' crimson red horizontal flowers, sturdy, doesn't heat fade
'Dwarf Star' rose shorter than 'Bright Star'
'Overton' rosy pink from seed, drooping ray flowers
'Robert Bloom' purple rose 4-5" flowers, upright petals, 3' tall
'The King' rose red 4-5" flowers, 4-5' tall
'White Lustre' white bronze-orange cone center
     

 


©Authored by Dr. Leonard Perry, Professor, University of Vermont as part of PSS123 course.

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