Perry's Perennial Pages

Articles relating to flowers, perennials
Appropriate for Anytime

Garden History, stories
Indoor Gardening
Indoor Plants
Outdoor Gardening, lawns
Outdoor Plants--Flowers
Outdoors Plants--Woody ornamentals
Pests and Problems
Gardening in a Changing Climate

Trends, Lifestyles and Hot Topics
Vegetables, Herbs
Tree and Small Fruits

The following articles are largely taken from Green Mountain Gardener news columns issued in the past from the University of Vermont, and include those on perennials and related flower topics. Articles may be listed under more than one topic. Other flower topics are listed by season.

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Articles are provided for educational purposes and may be reprinted unaltered without prior permission, provided credit is given to the authors and "University of Vermont Extension" as the source.  Notice of their use and publication, however, would be appreciated and can be sent to  You are advised to check here also to make sure the information in the article is still current and accurate. The most recent articles are listed nearest the top of each category heading.

Articles are listed below by season appropriate to Vermont and similar regions in USDA hardiness zone 4 (don't know your zone? check the Links page for zone finders). For each hardiness zone warmer add a couple weeks in fall, and subtract a couple weeks in spring for approximate dates. In other words, activities for late September in zone 4 might be done 4 weeks later in zone 6, and activities for early May in zone 4 might be done 4 weeks sooner in zone 6. .


Feeding Birds the Foods They Like

Plant Hardiness

Is It True, or Not?

The How and Why of Flower Color

Choosing Birdhouses

Proper Birdhouse Placement

Bird Feeders

Helping Plants Prepare for Winter

Fruits of Fall

Cleaning Garden Tools

Evaluating Your Garden

Come to Terms with Soils

Peat Moss or Compost?

What is Peat Moss?

Come to Terms with Plants

Fragrance in the Garden

Plant Breeding for Gardeners

Garden Flower Botany Primer-- classification

Garden Flower Botany Primer--roots, shoots, flowers

Garden Flower Botany Primer--leaves

Garden Photography for All Seasons

Photographing Flowers--Some Useful Tips

Photographing Flowers--the Basics

The Language of Leaves

Flower Word Power

Where do Your Plants Come From?

Understanding Plant Names

A Garden Worth Ten Scents (flower scents)



Design to Reduce Stress

Creating a Pollinator-friendly Landscape

Color in the Garden

Creating a Cooling Landscape

Stormwater Management

Grandmother's Garden

Beauty Beyond Bloom

Moonlight Gardens

Gardening Tips from Designers

Fountains for Landscapes

Water Gardening

Designing a Garden

Drive-by Gardens

Creating a Monochrome Garden

Garden Styles and Design

World Garden Styles

Hiring a Landscape Professional

Landscaping with Ornamental Grasses

Singing the Blues (blue flowers and beds)

Designing an English Garden

Developing a Landscape Plan

Landscaping with Family Needs in Mind

Fitting Ornamentals into Your Landscape

Sounds or Silence?(using sound in the garden)

Does your garden make Scents? (using fragrance in the garden)

Garden History, stories
Origins of African Violets and Impatiens

How Flowers Get Their Names

Legends of the Chrysanthemum

Origins of the Dutch Bulb Industry

Famous Botanists and Horticulturists, from A to C

Famous Persons of Horticulture D-F

Famous Persons of Horticulture G-I

Famous Persons in Horticulture J-K

Famous Persons of Horticulture, L

Famous Persons of Horticulture, M-O

Famous Persons of Horticulture, P

Famous Persons of Horticulture, R

Famous Persons of Horticulture, S

Famous Persons of Horticulture, T-W

Profile of an American Gardener

Grandmother's Garden

Women of Horticulture

Famous American Landscape Designers

Landscape Designers of England and Europe

Perennials and Gardens in History

Famous British Plant Explorers

Horticulturists of Note--Frederick Law Olmstead

Lesser Known Botanists and Horticulturists

Indoor Gardening 

Steps to Success with Houseplants

Benefits of Using Plants Indoors

Indoor Winter Gardening Questions

Watering Houseplants Properly

Terrariums:  Gardens in Glass

Caring for Cut Tulips

Why Houseplants Drop Leaves

Bringing Houseplants Indoors

Windowsill Herb Gardening

Houseplant Problems

To Repot your Houseplants, or Not

Tender Perennial Problems Indoors

Cut Flower Care

Overwintering Tender Perennials Indoors

Orangeries and Conservatories

Indoor Lighting for Plants

Plants at Work, Indoors

Houseplants need Humidity

Indoor Water Gardens

For Now and Ever After (everlastings)

Add Hours to Your Flowers

Growing Ferns Successfully Indoors

Let's Party--A 12-month Primer of Party Flowers

Creating Indoor Topiaries

Man-eating Plants? (carnivorous, insectivorous)

Indoor Plants

Easy Houseplants--Bowstring Hemp

Easy Houseplants-- ZZ Plant

Holiday Plants--Kalanchoe

Easy Houseplants--Pothos

Easy Houseplants--Rubber Plant

Easy Houseplants:  Swedish Ivy

Easy Houseplants: Peperomia

Easy Houseplants--Ornamental Figs

Growing Cacti as Houseplants

Easy Houseplants--Umbrella Plant

African Violets:  Seven Steps to Success

Easy Houseplants-- Grape Ivy

Easy Houseplants--Spider Plant

Easter lilies

Easy Houseplants-- Indoor Palms

Carnations, A Classic Cut Flower

Easy Houseplants: Flamingo Flower

Easy Houseplants--The Peace Lily

Why Do We Have Poinsettias?

Easy Houseplants--Thanksgiving Cactus

Holiday Plant Toxicity

Easy Houseplants--Norfolk Island Pine

Easy Houseplants--Thanksgiving cactus

Easy Houseplants-- Dracaena

The Best Succulents for Indoors

Fun Facts About Poinsettias

Easy Houseplants--Chinese Evergreens

Easy Houseplants--Begonias

Flowering Amaryllis Indoors

Care of Flowering Holiday Plants

Gerbera Daisies

Growing Orchids 201

Fragrant Paperwhites

Growing Orchids 101

Cineraria, Calceolaria, and Cyclamen

Orchids for Your Valentine


Consider Cyclamen

Poinsettias for the Holidays

Easy Houseplants

Easter Lilies

Naked Ladies Among Your Houseplants? (amaryllis)

Choosing Orchids to Grow in the Home

Growing Orchids Indoors

Low Light Houseplants

Your African Violet

Care of Peperomias

Plants of the Zodiac


Outdoor Gardening, Lawns

Preparing Roses for Winter

Compost, Don't Burn

Watering Trees and Shrubs

Pruning Tools

Planting Trees Correctly

Garden Tools for Digging and Weeding

Fall Lawn Care

Understanding Lawn Thatch

Lawns: Avoiding Disease Disasters

Pruning Evergreens in the Landscape

Trees Need Feeding?

Grow Healthy Lawns with Less Nitrogen

Lawns: The Pest Parade

Shrinking Your Lawn

How to Recognize Tree Hazards

Winterize Your Garden

Fall Care of Roses

Garden Cover Crops

Renovating Perennial Beds

Turf Wars--Trees and Lawns

Selecting the Best Trees

So You Want a Lawn

Does Your Landscape Need a Makeover?

Native Groundcovers

Plants to Attract Butterflies

Backyard Wildflower Gardens

Successful Staking

Spring Lawn Care

Wood Ashes in the Garden


Raised Beds


Mulch to Prevent Winter Injury

Gardening in a Drought

Minimizing Garden Allergies

Reclaiming a Flooded Yard or Garden

Five Reasons Why Native Plants Will Like Your Garden

Wood Chips as Mulch

Why Wildlife Need Native Plants

Salt Damage to Plants

Hummingbird Gardens

Spring Cleaning the Water Garden

Power Lines and Trees

Fall Planting of Trees

Fall Landscaping for Wildlife

The Not-So-Silent Garden

Gardening on Clay Soils

Home Greenhouses

Late Fall in the Perennial Garden

Pruning Dormant Plants

Shade in the Garden

Introducing Children to Fall Gardening Fun

Good Bugs in the Garden

Backyard Wildlife Habitats

The "Bee"-friendly Garden

Safety in the Garden

Weather for Gardeners

Choosing Deer Resistant Landscape Plants

Microclimates: What do they mean to you?

Rain Gardens for the North

Phosphorus and Lawns

Creative Container Combinations

Pruning Lilacs Properly

Kid-friendly Landscapes with Grown Up Appeal

Garden Stretches

Healthy Gardening

So You Want to Grow Perennials

Responsible Gardening (natives, invasives)

Water Gardening

Low-maintenance Gardening

Sounds or Silence?(using sound in the garden)

Developing a Landscape Plan

Landscaping with Family Needs in Mind

Fitting Ornamentals into Your Landscape

The ABCs of Pruning

The Buzz on Bees (bees and gardening, attracting them)

Garden Railways

Planting a Windbreak

Gardening on the Rocks

What is Peat?

Outdoor Plants-- Flowers/foliage

Snapdragon--2019 Annual Flower of the Year

Coral-colored Flowers

New Flower Winners for 2019

Consider Fritillaries this Fall

Perennial Plant Feature: Milkweeds

Coreopsis--Flower of the Year

Calibrachoa--Annual Flower of the Year 

Perennial Plant Feature: Avens

Nasturtium: A Favorite Old-fashioned Flower

Perennial Plant Feature: Fairy Wings

Ultra Violet Flowers

AAS Flower Winners for 2018

Japanese Painted Ferns


Growing Pansies

AAS Flower Winners for 2017

Perennial Plant Feature: Alliums

Ten Top Perennials to Please Pollinators

Perennial Plants Feature: Columbines

All-America Selections Flower Winners for 2016

Spring-flowering Bulb Questions

Perennial Plant Feature: Fall Asters

Perennial Plant Feature:  Joe-Pye

Perennial Plant Feature: Spiderwort

Begonias to Brighten Shade

Perennial Plant Feature: Solomon's Seal

Species Roses for Cold Climates

Hellebore: The Lenten Rose

Year of the Gaillardia

AAS Flower Winners for 2015

What's New in Coleus

Daffodils for All Gardens

New England Asters

The Versatile Clematis Vine

Choice Perennials for 2014

 Growing Roses Succcessfully

Choosing, Growing and Using Petunias

Native Perennial Winners for 2014

Tuberous Begonias

Flower and Vegetable Winners for 2014

Choosing Hardy Roses

Perennials for Late-season Color

Native Ferns

Native Perennials for Shady Landscapes

Summer Flowering Bulbs

Gerbera Daisies


Consider the Coralbells

Native Perennials for Sunny Landscapes

Fall Care of Summer Bulbs

Beautiful Buglosses

Garden Phlox

Growing Beautiful Bearded Iris

Geraniums or Pelargoniums?

New Flowers and Vegetables for 2012

Choice Perennials for 2012

Gorgeous Grape Hyacinths

Beautiful Bluestars

Delightful Dahlias

Choice Perennials for 2011

Time-travelling Tulips


Perennial Plant Feature--Culver's Root


Perennial Plant Feature--Speedwells


2010 Perennial Plant of the Year (Baptisia)


More 2010 All-America Winners


2010 All-America Winners

Choice Perennials for 2010

Tulips for Spring Blooms

Fabulous Fall Foliage Perennials

Tulip Temptations


Golden Hakone Grass

Ornamental Flowering Tobacco

Peony Questions

Small Mounded Perennials2009 All-America Winners

Roses and Their Fragrance

Rozanne Perennial Geranium

Choosing Perennials Ecologically

Coneflowers have Changed

Black-eyed Daisies

Perennials for Shade

Choice New Perennials

Lady in Black

Salt Tolerant Perennials

Cool Catmints

Meadow Rues

Versatile Violas

The 2007 Perennial Plant of the Year

Growing Fall Asters

Growing Daylilies

Dazzling Daylilies

The 2006 Perennial Plant of the Year (dianthus)

Colorful Annual Climbers

Lady's Mantle: A Useful Perennial

The How-to of Hostas

Beautiful Barrenworts

Hardy Perennials for 2005

Ten Top Hostas

Perennials to Consider

Canadian Explorer Roses

Year of the Dianthus

Perennial Sages

Perennial Plant Feature--Ladybells (Adenophora)

Perennial Plant Feature--Lady's Mantle (Alchemilla)

Perennial Plant Feature--Blue Stars (Amsonia)

Perennial Plant Feature--Sea Pinks (Armeria)

Perennial Plant Feature--Goat's Beard (Aruncus)

Perennial Plant Feature--Wild Ginger (Asarum)

The Year of the Zinnia

Plants for Water Gardens

Outdoor Plants-- Woody ornamentals

Ash Tree Alternatives

New Choice Trees and Shrubs

More Than Just Lilac

Red Oaks for the North

White Oaks for the North

Stately Oaks

Attractive Bark in Winter Landscapes

Fabulous Firs


The Rubies of Fall


Beautiful Birch Trees

Distinctive Tree and Shrub Winners for 2013-14

Ninebarks--Easy and Attractive Shrubs




Mountain Ash Trees


Larches Large and Small


Ginkgo Trees


Winterberry: Our Native Holly


Native Trees for Northern Landscapes

Low Native Shrubs and Groundcovers

Native Shrubs for Northern Landscapes

Selecting Flowering Crabapples


Landscaping with Vines

Cary Award Winners for 2012

Attractive Bark in Winter Landscapes

Try These Native Groundcovers

Sustainable Landscape Plants

Lovely Lilacs

Tree Trivia

Fall Color in Northern Landscapes

Some Great Hardy Maples

Choice Landscape Plants for the North

Award-winning Trees and Shrubs

Cary Award Winners for 2009

Shrubs for Shade

Alternatives to Buckthorn

Alternatives to the Norway Maple

Alternatives to the Bush Honeysuckle

Alternatives to the Burning Bush

Alternatives for Invasive Plants

Hardy Orchids

Black Plants for Green Thumbs


Native Shrubs for Dry Sites

Native Shrubs for wet sites


Cary Award Winning Plants


Pests and Problems 

Emerald Ash Borer

Woodchucks in the Garden

Moles and Voles, and their Controls

Helping Lawns Deal with Drought

Compost Happens, or Does It?

Beneficial Insects

Common Vegetable Diseases

Avoid Lyme Disease while Gardening

Effective Deer Fences


Landscape Plant Pests

Strategies to Control Deer in Landscapes

The After Effects of Drought

Chipmunks in the Garden


Choosing Deer-resistant Landscape Plants

Preventing Bird Damage to Fruits

Controlling Plant Diseases Begins Here

Controlling Animal Pests in Gardens and Landscapes

Winter Protection of Landscape Plants from Animals

The Other Side of Weeds

Why Plants Fail to Flower or Fruit

Ash Tree Alternatives

Beneficial Nematodes

Salt Damage to Plants

Cannas and Viruses

The Latest Bad Bug (Brown Marmorated Stinkbug)

Watch for these Grape Problems

Poison Ivy

Houseplant Problems

Outwitting Peter Cottontail

Plant Thugs

Three Serious Tree Pests

Controlling Slugs

Cabbage and Kale Not Look Right?

Deer Resistant Perennials

Alternatives to Japanese Barberry

Alternatives to the Bush Honeysuckle

Salt Tolerant Perennials

Alternatives to the Burning Bush

Tree Fruit Diseases

Perennial Flower Diseases

Invasive Pests

Common Tree Fruit Pests

Beneficial Insects and Spiders

Good Bugs in the Garden

Useful Facts about Insecticides

A Feast of Weeds

Common Flower Diseases

Viburnum Leaf Beetle

Deer Deterrents--Taste and Touch

Deer Deterrents--Sight and Sound

Deer Deterrents--Scents

What Weeds Can Tell You

Avoiding and Controlling Rose Diseases

What Causes Houseplant Leaf Drop?

Dogs and Deer Fences (controlling deer in gardens with fences, dogs)

Oh Deer! (Controlling deer in gardens)

 Gardening in a Changing Climate

Tracking the Climate with Phenology

Climate Change in the Garden:  Too Much Water

Climate Change in the Garden: Coping with Cold

Gardening in a Changing Climate

Climate Change in the Garden

Coping with Heat in the Garden

Rain Gardens for the North

Trends, Health, Lifestyles and Hot Topics

Gardening Trends for 2019


Basics of Bats

Garden Trends for 2018

Controlling Invasive Plants

Recycling in the Garden

Gardening Trends for 2017

Healing Gardens

From Bees to Butterflies and Beyond

Garden Trends for 2016

Snags: Dead Trees Support Life

Accessible Gardening for the Physically Challenged

Powerhouse Pollinator Plants

Tips to Reduce Garden Allergies

Planting a Butterfly Garden

Horticultural Health

Creative Container Combinations

Proper Lifting for Gardeners

Garden Trends for 2015

Liberty Tea

Flowers for the Fair

Creating a Cooling Landscape

Stormwater Management

Garden Railways

A Garden For Cats

Why Wildlife Need Native Plants

Some Plants and Sun Don't Mix (skin problems)

Gourmet Garden Flowers

The Accessible Fruit Garden

Horticultural Myths

Toward a "Greener" Lawn

Memorial Gardens

Relieve Stress with Flowers

Good Soil, Good Air

Recycled Garden Products

The Environmental Value of Landscaping

The Social Value of Landscaping

Recycling Plastics in the Garden

The Economic Value of Landscaping

More Green Gardening Tips

Green Resolutions for the New Year

Invasive Plants

Invasive Pests

A Billion Trees

A Sweet Plant 

Plants at Work, Indoors

Digital Garden Photography-- Equipment

Fuel-efficient Lawns and Landscapes

Alternatives for Invasive Plants

Five Reasons to Garden

Choosing Perennials, Ecologically

Let the Buyer Beware

The Therapy of Gardens

Decorating Your Garden

Improve your Love Life with Flowers

Wedding Flowers

Door Decor

Does your garden make Scents? (using fragrance in the garden)

Invasive Exotic Plants

Plants of the Zodiac

Vegetables, Herbs

Grow Your Own Pumpkins

Spring Tips in the Vegetable Garden

New Vegetable Winners for 2019

Storing Fruits and Vegetables

Harvesting Summer Vegetables


Early Summer tips for the Vegetable Garden


Growing Your Own Beets

AAS Vegetable Winners for 2018

Harvesting Cool Season Vegetables

Growing Your Own Peas

New Vegetables in 2017

Growing Garlic is Easy

The Many Uses and Types of Basil

Grow Your Own Carrots

Preserving Tomatoes

Saving Food Safely

Growing Your Own Sweet Peppers

Growing Asparagus

New Vegetables to Grow in 2015

AAS Vegetable Winners for 2015

Winter Squash

Garden Cover Crops

Growing and Using Lavender

Contain Your Vegetables

Grow Your Own Cucumbers

Growing Shiitake Mushrooms

Shallots and Scallions

Flower and Vegetable Winners for 2014

AAS Winning Vegetables for 2014

Harvesting Sweet Potatoes

Growing Watermelons

Garden "Keeper" Crops

Choosing Onions to Grow

Growing Excellent Onions

Choosing Tomatoes to Grow


Useful Vegetable Gardening Terms


Rosemary: An Historic and Useful Herb

Favorite Culinary Herbs

Waste Not Your Produce

Grow Your Own Potatoes


New Flowers and Vegetables for 2012

Watch for These Tomato Problems

The Herbal Harvest

Fall Vegetable Gardening

Vertical Vegetables

Improve Your Vegetable Garden

Windowsill Herb Gardening

Types of Garlic

The Many Uses of Garlic


Growing Squash

Easy-to-Grow Vegetables

Planning Your Vegetable Garden

Why Grow Vegetables?

Drying Vegetables

The Many Uses of Eggplant

Leafy Greens

Freezing Vegetables

Garden Cover Crops

Growing Eggplants

Interesting Cool Crops (cabbage, kale)

The Many Uses of Basil

Building a Raised Bed

Cabbage and Kale Not Look Right?

Common Vegetable Diseases


Tree and Small Fruits

Spring Tips for the Fruit Garden

Drying Apples

Basics of Growing Blueberries

Saving Food Safely

Preventing Bird Damage to Fruits

Pruning Apple Trees

Fruits of Fall

Choosing Blueberries

Fall Fruit Gardening Tips

Using Tree Fruits

Renovating an Old Orchard

Growing Bountiful Brambles

Choosing Apple Trees

Lesser Known Berries

Harvesting and Storing Fall Fruits

Pruning Berry Bushes

Apple Pests and Diseases

Choosing Brambles


Some Small Fruit Terms

Tree Fruit Terms

Fruit Gardener's Bible

Apples for All

Watch for these Grape Problems

Espalier Fruit Trees

Growing Fruits in Containers

Cold Climate Fruit Trees

Pruning Grape Vines

Pruning Fruit Trees

Choosing Fruit Trees

Nut Trees for Northern Landscapes

Strawberries--Harvest and Renovation

Growing Strawberries

Summer Tips for the Fruit Garden

Storing Fruits and Vegetables

Cold Climate Grapes

Caring for Raspberries

Northern Grape Growing

Why Fruit Trees Fail to Bear

For suggestions of articles, comments or corrections contact Distribution of these articles is made possible by the University of Vermont, with support from Green Works-- the Vermont Nursery and Landscape Association. 

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